Courses of Studies 2011
Class : 11th & 12th
Biology (Code No 044)
The present syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes
while the students learn new concepts besides getting an exposure to
contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing on the
underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as
highlighting the relationship of biology with other areas of knowledge. The
format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, consequential flow of concepts
without any jarring jumps. The syllabus also stresses on the connection of the
study of Biology to real life problems, use of biological
discoveries/innovations in everyday life – in environment, industry, health and
agriculture. The updated syllabus also focuses on reducing the curriculum load
while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating
basic concepts of the subject continue to be available within its framework.
The prescribed syllabus is expected to
promote understanding of basic principles of biology
encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and
promote rational/specific attitude to issues related to population, environment
enhance awareness about environmental issues and problems and the appropriate
create awareness amongst the learners about variations amongst the living, and
developing respect for the diversities and to appreciate that the most complex
biological phenomena are also built on essentially simple processes.
It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of
Biology in the syllabus in a more contextual and friendly manner as they study
its various units.
Class XI (Theory)
One Paper Time: 3
Hours 70 Marks
- Diversity in living
world 07 Marks
- Structural organization in animals and plants 12 Marks
- Cell: Structure and function 15
- Human Physiology
I Diversity in Living
World (25 Periods)
Diversity of living organisms
Classification of the living organisms (five kingdom classification, major
groups and principles of classification within each kingdom).
Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature Salient features of animal
(non-chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level) and
plant (major groups; Angiosperms up to class) classification, viruses, viroids,
lichens Botanical gardens, herbaria, zoological parks and museums.
II Structural Organisation in Animals and
Plants (30 Periods)
Tissues in animals and plants.
Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root,
stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed.
Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of an annelid
(earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).
III CELL: STRUCTURE AND
FUNCTION (40 Periods)
Cell: Cell theory; Prokaryotic and eucaryotic cell, cell wall, cell membrane and
cell organelles’ (plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
bodies/dictyosomes, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles) and nuclear
organization. Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle.
Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
Enzymes: types, properties and function.
Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases, Plants and Water Mineral
nutrition, Respiration, Photosynthesis, Plant growth and development.
Digestion and absorption.
Breathing and respiration.
Body fluids and circulation.
Excretory products and elimination.
Locomotion and movement.
Neural control and coordination,
chemical coordination and regulation.
Biology textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
Time: 3 Hours Marks :
30 60 Periods
1. Experiments and
2. Record of one investigatory project and Viva based on the project
3. Class record and Viva, based on
experiments 5 marks
A. List of Experiments
1. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each
of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) Types of root
(tap or adventitious), stem (herbaceous/woody) leaf
arrangement/shapes/venation/simple or compound).
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves and
calculate the stomatal index (No of stomata/no of stomata + no of epidermal
cells) x 100.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower
surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats in suitable plant
and animal materials (e.g., wheat, potato, groundnut, milk or other such
8. Separate chlorophyl pigment through paper chromatography.
9. To study the rate of respiration in flower buds and germinating seeds.
10. To study effect of salivary amylase on starch.
11. To test the presence of urea, sugar, albumin and bile salts in urinesample
(simulated sampled may be used).
B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)
1. Study parts of a compound microscope.
2. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons-Bacteria,
Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Mushroom, Yeast, Liverwort, Moss, Fern,
Pines, one monocotyledon and one dicotyledon and one lichen.
3. Study of specimens and identification with reasons-Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke,
Ascaris, Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm, Honeybee, Snail, Starfish, Shark,
Rohu, Frog, Lizard, Pigeon and Rabbit.
4. Study of the diversity in shape and size of cells in different plant and
animal tissues (e.g., palisade, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem,
phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibres and mammalian blood smear) through
5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells.
6. Study of different modifications in root, stem and leaves.
7. Study and identify different types of inflorescences.
8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up on:
a. Anaerobic respiration
c. Apical bud removal
d. Suction due to transpiration
10. To study human skeleton and different types of joints.
11. Study of morphology of earthworm, cockroach and frog through models/
Syllabus – Biology (XII)
One Paper Time: 3 Hours Marks : 70
7. Genetics and
evolution 18 Marks
8. Biology and human welfare
9. Biotechnology and its applications 10
10. Ecology and environment
Reproduction in organisms : Asexual and sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction
in flowering plants : Structure of flower, pollination, fertilization,
development of seeds and fruits, apomixis and polyembryony.
Human reproduction : Reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle,
production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development,
pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Reproductive Health : Problems and
strategies, Population and birth control, contraception
and MTP; sexually transmitted diseases, infertility.
II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene
interaction- incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles).
Sex determination in human beings: XX, XY.
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern : Mendelian disorders and chromosomal disorders in humans.
DNA and RNA, search for genetic material, replication, transcription, genetic
code, translation. Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
Evolution: Origin of life, theories and evidences, adaptive radiation, mechanism
of evolution, origin and evolution of man.
III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Cancer and AIDS
Adolescence and drug / alcohol abuse.
Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, food production, animal
Mircobes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment,
energy generation, biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
IV BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION
Principles and Processes; Recombinant DNA technology; Application in Health and
Agriculture; genetically modified (GM) organisms; biosafety issues.
V ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
Organism and Population : Organism and its environment, populations and
diversity and its conservation for Biodiversity, its importance and
conservation, Biosphere reserves, National parks and sancturaries.
Ecosystems : components, types, energy flow, nutrient cycling and ecosystem
services. Environmental issues.
Biology textbook for Class XII, Published by NCERT
Time: 3 Hours Marks : 30 60
1. Experiments and
2. Record of one investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5
3. Class record and Viva based on
experiments 5 marks
List of Experiments
1. Disect the given flower and display different whorls. Disect anther and ovary
to show number of chambers.
2. Study pollen germination on a slide.
3. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study these for
texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with
the kinds of plants found in them.
4. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study the
samples for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely
6. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.
7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis
8. To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on
the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect)
2. Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S.
ovary through permanent slides. (from any mammal)
4. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent
5. Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide.
6. Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any
7. Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue,
blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
8. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. To identify common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba,
Plasmodium, Ringworm through permanent slide or specimen. Comment on symptoms of
diseases that they cause.
10. Study two plants and two animals found in xeric conditions. Comment upon
11. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their
adaptations/ morphological features.