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(Syllabus) CBSE Class 11th & 12th : Mathematics Syllabus 2011 (Code No: 041)
The Syllabus in the subject of Mathematics has undergone changes from time to time in accordance with growth of the subject and emerging needs of the society. Senior Secondary stage is a launching stage from where the students go either for higher academic education in Mathematics or for professional courses like engineering, physical and Bioscience, commerce or computer applications. The present revised syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Frame work 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. Motivating the topics from real life situations and other subject areas, greater emphasis has been laid on application of various concepts.
The broad objectives of teaching Mathematics at senior school stage intend to
help the pupil:
to acquire knowledge and critical understanding, particularly by way of motivation and visualization, of basic concepts, terms, principles, symbols and mastery of underlying processes and skills.
to feel the flow of reasons while proving a result or solving a problem.
to apply the knowledge and skills acquired to solve problems and wherever possible, by more than one method.
to develop positive attitude to think, analyze and articulate logically.
to develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions.
to acquaint students with different aspects of mathematics used in daily life.
to develop an interest in students to study mathematics as a discipline.
to develop awareness of the need for national integration, protection of environment, observance of small family norms, removal of social barriers, elimination of sex biases.
to develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians for their contributions to the field of Mathematics.
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks. 100
I. SETS AND FUNCTIONS 29 Marks
II. ALGEBRA 37 Marks
III. COORDINATE GEOMETRY 13 Marks
IV. CALCULUS 06 Marks
V. MATHEMATICAL REASONING 03 Marks
VI. STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 12 Marks
UNIT-I: SETS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Sets : (12) Periods
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets.Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set.
Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2. Relations & Functions: (14) Periods
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain. codomain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions: (18) Periods
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy. Deducing the identities like the following:
tan (x ± y) = (tan x ± tany)/ (1 ± tan x . tan y) , cot (x ± y) = (cot x . cot y ± 1)/ (cot y ± cot x)
sin x + sin y = 2 sin (x + y)/2 . cos (x – y)/2 , cos x + cos y = 2 cos (x + y)/2 . cos (x – y)/2
sin x – sin y = 2 cos (x + y)/2 . sin (x – y)/2 , cos x – cos y = – 2 sin (x + y)/2 . sin (x – y)/2
Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sinθ = sin α, cosθ = cos α and tanθ = tan α.
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction: (06)
Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations: (10) Periods
Need for complex numbers, especially √1, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.
3. Linear Inequalities: (10)
Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables.
Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically.
4. Permutations & Combinations: (12) Periods
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem: (08) Periods
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series: (10) Periods
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A. P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series Σn, Σn2 and Σn3.
UNIT-III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1. Straight Lines: (09) Periods
Brief recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, twopoint form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Sections: (12) Periods
Sections of a cone: circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. Introduction to Three -dimensional Geometry (08)
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.
1. Limits and Derivatives: (18) Periods
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
UNIT-V: MATHEMATICAL REASONING
Reasoning: (08) Periods
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases – consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contra positive.
UNIT-VI: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events.
1) Mathematics Part I – Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication
2) Mathematics Part II – Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication
One Paper Three Hours Marks: 100
I. RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
II. ALGEBRA 13 Marks
III. CALCULUS 44 Marks
IV. VECTORS AND THREE – DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 17 Marks
V. LINEAR PROGRAMMING 06 Marks
VI. PROBABILITY 10 Marks
UNIT I. RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Relations and Functions : (10) Periods
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric
Functions: (12) Periods
Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
1. Matrices: (18) Periods
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order.
2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants: (20)
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
1. Continuity and Differentiability: (18) Periods
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function.Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
2. Applications of Derivatives: (10) Periods
Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variaty of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type.
∫dx/(x2 ±a2), ∫dx/√(x2 ±a2), ∫dx/√(a2 – x2), ∫dx/(ax2 + bx2 + c), ∫dx/√(ax2 + bx + c)
∫(px+q)/(ax2 + bx + c)dx, ∫(px+q)/√(ax2 + bx + c)dx, ∫√(a2 ± x2) dx and ∫√(x2 – a2)dx
to be evaluated.
Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals: (10) Periods
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations: (10) Periods
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.
Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of
linear differential equation of the type:
dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x.
UNIT-IV: VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. Three – dimensional Geometry: (12) Periods
Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
UNIT-V: LINEAR PROGRAMMING
1. Linear Programming: (12) Periods
Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
1. Probability: (18) Periods
Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
1) Mathematics Part I – Textbook for Class XII, NCERT Publication
2) Mathematics Part II – Textbook for Class XII, NCERT Publication