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(Syllabus) CBSE Class 9th & 10th : SCIENCE (Code No. 086 / 090)
About Us: The subject of Science plays an important role in developing in children well-defined abilities in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and asthetic sensibility. Whereas the upper primary stage demands that plentiful opportunities should be provided to the students to engage them with the processes of science like observing, recording observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs etc., the secondary stage expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the teaching and learning of Science.
Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of Gravitation. The present syllabus has been designed around six broad themes viz. Food, Materials, the world of the living, how things work, moving things, people and ideas, natural phenomenon and natural resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No attempt has been made to be comprehensive. At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject.
CLASS IX (THEORY)
Unit 1 : Food
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management ; use of fertilizers, manures; protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.
Theme : Materials (50 Periods)
Unit 2 : Matter – Nature and behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (Cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
Particle nature, basic units : atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions. Atomic and molecular masses.
Mole Concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers. Valency. Chemical formula of common compounds.
Structure of atom : Electrons, protons and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.
Theme : The World of the living (45 Periods)
Unit 3 : Organization in the living world.
Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals – basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Cell – Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
Tissues, organs, organ systems, organism.
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; merismatic and permanent tissues in plants).
Health and diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse polio programmes.
Theme : Moving things, people and ideas (60 Periods)
Unit 4 : Motion, Force and Work
Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and motion, Newton’s laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
Gravitation : Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation
of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.
Floatation : Thrust and pressure. Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density.
Work, Energy and Power : Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy; law of conservation of energy.
Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.
Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only).
Theme : Natural Resources (15 Periods)
Unit 5 : Our Environment
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil.
Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures, movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India.
Air, water and soil pollution ( brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : water, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Marks : 40 (20 + 20)
1. To prepare
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
c) a colloidal of starch in water and egg albumin in water and distinguish between these on the basis of
ii) filtration criterion
2. To prepare
a) a mixture
b) a compound using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguish between these on the basis of :
i) appearance i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
ii) behaviour towards a magnet
iii) behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvant.
iv) effect of heat.
3. To carry out the following chemical reactions and record observations. Also identify the type of reaction involved in each case.
i) Iron with copper sulphate solution in water.
ii) Burning of Magnesium in air.
iii) Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
iv) Heating of Lead Nitrate
v) Sodium sulphate with Barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water.
4. To verify laws of reflection of sound.
5. To determine the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
6. To establish the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in
i) tap water
ii) strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
7. To measure the temperature of hot water as it cools and plot a temperature-time graph.
8. To determine the velocity of a pulse propagated through a stretched string/slinky.
9. To prepare stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel and (b) human cheek cells and to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams.
10. To identify parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals, from prepared slides and to draw their labeled diagrams.
11. To separate the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride (or camphor) by sublimation.
12. To determine the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.
13. To test (a) the presence of starch in the given food sample (b) the presence of the adulterant metanil yellow in dal.
14. To study the characteristic of spirogyra/Agaricus, Moss/Fern, Pinus ( either with male or female conre) and an Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of groups they belong to.
15. To observe and draw the given specimens—earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird. For each specimen record
(a) one specific feature of its phylum
(b) one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat.
SCHEME OF EVALUATION: Multiple choice type question written test (School based) : 20 Marks Hands-on practicals examination (school based) : 20 Marks
CLASS X : (Theory)
Theme : Materials (55 Periods) Unit 1 : Chemical
Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Acids, bases and salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH— ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Chemical reactions : Chemical Equation, Balanced chemical equation, Implications of a balanced Chemical equation, Types of chemical reactions : combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Metals and non metals : Properties of Metals and Non-metals, reactivity series, Formation and properties of ionic compounds, Basic Metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon Compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon, Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing, Functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons, Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements : Need for classification, Modern Periodic table, Gradation in Properties. Valency, Atomic number, metallic and non- etallic properties.
Theme : The world of the living (50 Periods) Unit 2
: World of Living
Life Processes : "living being"; Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Control and Co-ordination in animals and plants : Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination : animal hormones.
Reproduction : Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual). Reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and evolution : Heredity; Model’s contribution- Rules for inheritance of traits; Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Theme : How things work. (35 Periods) Unit 3 :
Effects of Current
Electric currecnt, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life ; Heating effect of Electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric Power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R. Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electro magnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current, Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current; frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Theme : Natural Phenomena (20 Periods)
Unit 4 : Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length. Mirror Formula (Derivation not required), Magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Theme : Natural Resources (20 Periods) Unit 5 :
Management of natural resources :
Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear. Renewable versus non-renewable sources.
Our Environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable, substances.
Practical LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Marks : 40 (20 + 20*
1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator.
i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid
ii) Dilute NaOH solution
iii) Dilute Ethanoic acid solution
iv) Lemon juice
vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate Solution.
2. To study the properties of acids and bases HCl & NaOH by their reaction with
i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
ii) Zinc metal
iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate
3. To determine the focal length ofa) Concave mirror
b) Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object.
4. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
5. To study the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on their current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I.
6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series.
7. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel.
8. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
9. To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
10. To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
11. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
12. To determine the percentage of water absorbed by raisins.
13. To perform and observe the following reactions and classify them into:
i) Combination Reaction
ii) Decomposition Reaction
iii) Displacement Reaction
iv) Double Displacement Reaction
1. Action of water on quick lime.
2. Action of heat on Ferrous Sulphate crystals
3. Iron Nails kept in copper sulphate solution
4. Reaction between Sodium sulphate and Barium chloride solutions.
14. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions.
i) ZnSO4 (aq.)
ii) FeSO4 (aq.)
iii) CuSO4 (aq.)
iv) Al2 (SO4)3 (aq.)
b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result
15. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
ii) solubility in water
iii) effect on litmus
iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate
SCHEME OF EVALUATION :
External Examination to be conducted by the Board through multiple choice type written test. 20 Marks
This test will be based on the experiments listed in Class IX and Class X .
School-based hands-on practical examination. practical syllabus reflects in this document. 20 Marks
RECOMMENDED BOOKS :
Science – Textbook for class IX – NCERT Publication
Science – Textbook for class X – NCERT Publication
Assessment of Practical Skills in Science – Class IX – CBSE Publication
Assessment of Practical Skills in Science – Class X – CBSE Publication