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(Info) New Pattern For 2008 Question Papers

Pattern : New Pattern For 2008 Question Papers

 Very short answer questions: These are to be answered in one word or one sentence.


Question: Give an example of photochemical reactions.

Answer: Photosynthesis / Photography
Short answer questions (30-40 words): These are to be answered in 30 – 40 words.

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Graphic Design (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Graphic Design (Class 11 & 12)




Graphic design is the creative planning and execution of visual communication. One learns to create a combination of shapes and forms, words and images, in order to reproduce them in some flat medium (two dimensional - paper, cardboard, cloth, plastic, video, computer, or projection screen, on poster, billboard, or other signage) or in a three-dimensional form (fabricated or manufactured) in order to convey information to a targeted audience. All graphic design has a purpose or function. Usually its purpose is commercial to explain aesthetically something -- to express, inform, and influence the thoughts and actions of its audience.

This subject introduces the student to art intended to communicate information and advertising. The focus is on studying and using layout and design concepts used in the graphic design field. The students will employ both analog media (drawing with pencil and  paper, etc.) and digital media -- using up-to-date computer tools (graphics hardware and software - for drawing, painting, layout, typography, scanning, and photography).

1. Creating Art: Students know and apply the arts, disciplines, techniques and processes to communicate in original or interpretive work.

2. Art in Context: Students demonstrate how elements of time and place influence the visual characteristics, content, purpose and message of works of art.

3. Art as Inquiry: Students demonstrate how the arts reveal universal concepts and themes. Students reflect upon and assess the characteristics and merits of their work and the work of others.

Graphic Design at senior secondary stage is an elective subject. Although there are no prerequisite qualifications for the subject the students should demonstrate basic skill and interest in the fields of art and design to opt this subject.


Design is the process of selection where visual elements such as point, line, shape, volume, tone, texture, color, form, format, space, and structure are used by students to express their ideas. Visual sensitivity and working knowledge of design elements would be developed by solving a series of problems and employing a variety of media and materials. The curricular area aims at enabling the students to develop their mental faculties of observation, imagination, and creation and develop skills and sensitivity towards the use of visual elements for an effective visual communication.

Design is an activity of problem solving for the well being of society and individuals. Today, in the world of information and communication every one has to communicate and get  communicated by different groups of people through a wide variety of communication systems.

Graphic designs course have great potential in providing creative solutions to communication of complex phenomena of print media such as books, magazines and newspaper, known as pictographic depictions or concept visualization. It can be traditionally applied in typography, cartooning (social, political and educational), and designing poster, book-covers, letter heads, news papers, brochure, logo, textile prints, or even jewelries. Since the advent of personal computers and design software, graphic design is being utilized in electronic mediaoften referred to as interactive design which has unlimited applications in advertisements. The students can later become graphic designers working in print production (newsletters, posters, brochures, etc). Graphic designers combine text and images to communicate a message: sell a product or service, inform, or entertain.

The Graphic Design curriculum focuses on creating intelligent and powerful visual communication. Students build a strong foundation for a graphic design career by learning design techniques, visual thinking, concept development, colour, composition, and typography, through case studies and hands-on exercises. During the study, assignments will incorporate problem solving projects that relate to visual communication. The course includes introduction to computer as a tool to create, modify and present the visual messages. By opting Graphic Design as one of the Elective subjects at Senior Secondary level, the students will have various options to pursue their advanced studies in Graphic Design or the knowledge may be integrated with related curricular/professional areas for their career.


By studying Graphic Design students will have a wider horizon in the field of art and will

  • Demonstrate artistic growth by executing a variety of images/ text as images, traditional and contemporary techniques that solve complex design problems using creative thinking and analytical skills.

  • Develop and demonstrate their understanding and skillful use of the elements and principles of visual design (1. conceptual element, 2. visual element, 3. relational element & 4. practical or functional element.)

  • Gain skill to use the digital tools as a powerful means of communication for creation, modification & presentation.

  • Study the works of contemporary artists, designers as well as the masters in the field and discuss and enrich their vocabulary of design.

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Arts-Education (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised syllabus Of Arts-Education (Class 11 & 12)




National Council of Educational Research and Training
Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi - 110016



  •  Objectives

  •  Content and Methods

  •  Assessment

Visual arts

  •  Upper Primary

  •  Secondary

  •  Higher Secondary


  •  Upper Primary

  •  Secondary

  •  Higher Secondary


  •  Upper Primary

  •  Secondary

  •  Higher Secondary


  •  Upper Primary

  •  Secondary

  •  Higher Secondary

Heritage Crafts

  •  Higher Secondary
    Graphic Design

  •  Higher Secondary


The need to integrate arts education in the formal schooling of our students now requires urgent attention if we are to retain our unique cultural identity in all its diversity and richness. For decades now, the need to integrate arts in the education system has been repeatedly debated, discussed and recommended and yet, today we stand at a point in time when we face the danger of loosing our unique cultural identity. One of the reasons for this is the growing distance between the arts and the people at large. Far from encouraging the pursuit of arts, our education system has steadily discouraged young students and creative minds from taking to the arts or at best, permits them to consider the arts to be ‘useful hobbies’ and ‘leisure activities’. Arts are therefore, tools for enhancing the prestige of the school on occasions like Independence Day, Founder’s Day, Annual Day or during an inspection of the school’s progress and working etc. Before or after that, the arts are abandoned for the better part of a child’s school life and the student is herded towards subjects that are perceived as being more worthy of attention.

General awareness of the arts is also ebbing steadily among not just students, but their guardians, teachers and even among policyV makers and educationalists. During a child’s school life each student is given information about different subjects such as history, literature, sciences etc. and they are then able to make a choice of whether they would like to specialize in different streams of learning such as humanities, science or commerce. If the child is not given any exposure to the arts we are not giving the child the option to study arts at higher secondary stage.

Arts in India are also living examples of diversity of its cultural fabric. Arts will enrich the lives of our young citizens through their lifetime, not merely during their school years. An understanding of the arts of the country will give our youth the ability to appreciate the richness and variety of artistic traditions as well as make them liberal, creative thinkers and good citizens of the nation.

Repeated recommendations for integrating arts education in the school curriculum have not been implemented so far, and if we continue to relegate the arts as a mere extra curricular activity, or as a tool to teach other subjects, we may face the prospect of further artistic and cultural ruin. If, arts education is not introduced as a subject in school curriculum, it will continue to be an amusing, entertaining fringe activity alone, to be indulged in if and when there is time to spare from other more ‘useful’ activities. Students will not be aware of the rich and varied artistic traditions in the country, of the vibrant and ever evolving nature of creative arts, and will continue to learn only the occasional song or dance of dubious worth .

Following is a set of recommendations suggested by the National Focus Group on Arts, Music, Dance and Theater, in the National Curriculum Framework-2005:

  • Arts education must become a subject taught in every school as a compulsory subject up to class X and facilities for the same may be provided in every school. The streams covered by the term arts education are music, dance, visual arts and theatre, with a special emphasis on Indian traditional arts and crafts, which currently face the threat of being drowned out by so called mainstream and popular arts.

  • School authorities must acknowledge in practice that arts are to be given significance in the curriculum and not just restricted to being so-called entertaining or prestige-earning activities. They must permit and actively encourage students to study the arts.

  • Emphasis should be given on learning than teaching in arts education and teachers should have participatory and interactive approach rather them instructive.

Time Allocation in School for Arts Education

Pre primary stage

In pre-primary classes, usually total duration of working is 4 hours, five days a week. Although all the curriculum will be transacted through art forms, at least 1 hour each day should be allocated for experiential practice of art forms.

Primary and Upper primary stages

2 periods a week for activities of
drawing, painting and sculpture/ clay modelling.

2 periods a week for activities of craft.

2 periods a week for activities of music.

2 periods a week for dance activity.

2 periods a week for drama related activities.

For activity based subjects like arts and craft schools should allocate block periods, which is two periods of 40-45 minutes each. On an average, schools have 40 periods per week (for primary) and 48 periods in upper primary. Out of this,1/4 time should be allocated for arts education.

Secondary stage

During the secondary stage arts education as a compulsory subject requires equal time distribution as for other subjects. At least 6 periods (3 block periods) should be allocated for practical activities and 1 period should be allocated for theory.

Higher secondary stage

During the higher secondary stage arts education as one of the compulsory subject requires at least 8 periods (4 block periods) for practical activities and 2 periods should be allotted for theory paper.

The following age group and periods (approximate) allocated at different stages of school education are indicative of an ideal situation:

* Since the students will study any one of the above 5 subjects of arts education during classes IX-X.


All schools should have the basic facilities to provide arts education,which will include trained teachers, resources to provide basic materials, separate space for conducting visual and performing arts.

Classroom Organisation

Classroom organization and the concept of space, specially for the activities in arts education is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. In an ideal situation, schools should have rooms especially allocated for art activities, whether for visual or performing arts. Where students can spread their work, sit at ease and interact with teachers and the peer group easily. A hall or a big room or even an open space for theatre activities in the school is a must since these activities require lot of space.

Number of students in the classroom should be limited (to 30-35 students/ class) and manageable. This permits the teacher to pay personal attention to every student. If the class is large, it is advisable to divide them in different groups. This will enable the teacher to supervise them group-wise. The physical arrangements and facilities  in a classroom for any particular subject are dictated by the activities to be carried out.

Practices in classroom and outside

Some strategies for classroom and outside the classroom practices have been suggested for the schools and teachers. Teachers should try to conduct group activities so far it is possible. This will enable the children to share their resources; materials and a sense of cooperation and sharing will develop among the students.

Using local resources

Looking at the socio-economic and cultural diversity of the country, it would be all the more essential for the schools, parents and teachers to be able to use the local regional arts and craft traditions both visual and performing in the developmental stages of school education. Children are required to be made aware of the uniqueness and diversity of their own surroundings and environment. All the schools should provide experience to children to work with the community, beyond the fore walls of the school. Almost all the cities, towns, villages and families in India have local arts and crafts traditions, old monuments etc. around which the children can construct their own history. Artists, craftsmen, performers may be called to the school or they can be employed on part time basis by the schools to teach their art forms.

Workshops to be organized frequently

Schools may regularly organize workshops for one week or a fortnight where local artists can be invited to interact with the students and teachers. Workshops on art and crafts, theatre, music/singing, musical instrument making, pottery, leatherwork, folk dance, animation, puppetry and so on can be arranged for students’ experiential learning. In these workshops children and teachers from neighboring schools can also join. Workshops may also be conducted at the artists’ workplace.

Classroom interactions

It is essential for the teachers to interact with the students regularly and communicate by asking them about their interests, what they would like to do in the classroom rather than being prescriptive all the time. Knowledge sharing is another method to make the child feel important when he/she can share her/his experiences or works with other students in the class. Teachers too should share their learning experiences with children and participate in different activities. Teachers should also share their classroom experiences with other teachers within the school as well as with teachers of other schools. Art teachers of different schools can also have a forum to share their experiences for better teaching-learning and evaluation practices.


When children enter primary school, they come with a relatively large aesthetic knowledge that comprises visual images, local music and songs, rhythm and body movements. They are capable of expressing and experimenting with different media, materials and forms of art. It is through this that they explore the natural and social environment around them as well as their own emotions and development. All children, irrespective of their different socio-cultural backgrounds, demonstrate a tendency to use the elements and materials of arts spontaneously without any pre-conceived ideas about them at the primary level. In fact the very experience of seeing or participating in an art activity gives inexpressible joy.

From early childhood the child uses creativity: to construct and reconstruct an endless variety of images. The child grasps the stubby crayon and attempts to express what she/he sees in terms of symbols – the stick — like man, the symmetrical house, the plane… children’s minds seem especially tuned to the use of metaphors and symbols. The very act of creating a work of art: a song, a play, a photograph or painting is itself a symbol of our desire to capture an idea, a mood or feeling and communicate it to others. At around eight years, the type of painting/drawing that the child does changes, as she/ he moves more and more towards realistic depictions and the process of capturing visual details, often with greater skills. No longer are the symbols that the child used earlier brought into play – there are no symmetrical houses, mountains, aeroplanes but a move towards a more visually realistic representation.

Thus, at the very outset of school education, children should be provided opportunities and granted the possibility to expand upon their creativity adding to their experiences through painting, craftwork, clay-modeling, singing, movement, recitation and story telling. Linking performance with language, mathematics and environmental studies will lead to an integrated approach in the teaching learning method. On one level integrating performing and visual arts with other subject areas will help the child to express  creatively and meaningfully. On another level interlinking them with different subjects is a well-tested pedagogic tool for the teacher to exemplify and illustrate terms and concepts.


The objectives of learning through arts at the primary school stage would be:

  •  To make the learners conscious about the good and beautiful in environment, including classroom, school, home and community through an integrated learning approach, which they enjoy.
  •  To make children express freely their ideas and emotions about different aspects of life.
  •  To develop all the senses of children through observation, exploration and expression.

Content and Methods

Children’s learning happens primarily  through the kinds of experiences that they have, it follows that the learning environment in schools should generate different experiences from which children can take their learning forward. Thus, the need is to create situations in which children can face and experience new and fresh ideas by expressing themselves through enactments, narration, body movements, singing, recitation, action play, games, drawings, conversation and informal talks.. The best way to do it is by adopting an integrated approach to learning wherein the boundaries between subjects is blurred and they all blend together. The focus is not so much on science, language and mathematics but on making sense of the immediate environment through a range of themes/ topics that connect children to their actual lived experiences. All the major arts and craft forms share a lot of dissimilarities as well as similarities that cut across them. The themes or content the children learn provide a framework and the required scope for dealing with a wide range of  issues depending on the socio-cultural contexts that inform children’s thinking within the classroom. For example, issues such as the natural environment, the elements, wild nature, tools that man uses, means of travel, family and relatives etc. can be used to further generate specific connections to subject areas of mathematics, science and languages.

Young children however will
respond to the fundamental
dynamic process which is
common to all the arts following
a particular sequence, i.e.
(i) sensing oneself and the
surrounding world,
(ii) responding to the things
sensed, and
(iii) expressing these responses
through media, technique,
aesthetics, creativity, and

Children should be made to work in small groups expressing through color, pattern and texture, line and tone, shape, form and space using pencil, pastel, poster color, watercolor, and different sizes of paper. This will encourage them to share resources and bring about a feeling of cooperation. Arts Education comprises what children learn in the curriculum through all the mentioned activities.

Arts Education should be brought into the classroom during the learning process in a natural way through various activities and games that are in context and relate to their real life experiences.Therefore teachers along with students can take part in various school activities throughout the year. This includes memorizing and reciting short theme oriented poems/rhymes focusing on different subjects such as colors, numbers, plants and animals, which will enhance the child’s cognitive understanding of its surroundings as well as augment language and communication skills. Setting these rhymes to tune and discovering in them their inherent rhythm will build on the child’s sense of time regulation/management in creative expression. Understanding the difference between sounds of animate and inanimate things in the child’s environment will develop in it a discerning ability facilitating the power to recognize.

The content for arts education
activities at primary stage
should be oriented towards:
• Self
• Family
• Classroom
• Immediate environment/

In classes I and II children may be steered into learning short theme oriented poems/rhymes focusing on different subjects such as colors, numbers, plants and animals. This will enhance cognitive understanding of their surroundings as well as augment language and communication skills.

Activities comprising arts education taught in the initial two classes of elementary education are time-bound activities, providing exposure to creative communication, linguistic comprehension, identifying, recognizing and applying varying sounds in different contexts, communicating through gesture as well as exploring and expanding thematic understanding.

Therefore in classes III to V simple topics associated with what exists in the immediate environment of the students may be treated as source material for such interactions. At this stage emphasis on intonation and inflection creating variety in speech patterns could give story telling and enactment an added dimension. Enactment of stories that students narrate is significant group activity focusing on the necessity and importance of working as a team. This will give them the ability to discover emotional, personal and social aspects of life. They may also draw the stories they narrate/enact. This is also the stage when students should be encouraged to incorporate craftwork such as simple masks, puppets, headgears and other uncomplicated props may be made by them and used as a part of narration and enactment. Through making these simple masks the student could be introduced to the mask-making traditions in different regions of the country through pictures, audio-visual material or actual masks.

The country has a rich tradition of music and dance, which has the rhythm and spirit of harmony involving the entire community or village. Performed on different occasions these content-rich songs are a repository of oral traditions prevalent in regions. These themes vary from description of seasons to harvesting to child birth or marriage. Simple songs from these may be taken for learning in schools. Learning these traditional songs and dances, and expressing  themselves freely, the children will be able to appreciate and understand classical performances better when they grow up.

The national anthem, national song, songs in the form of simple compositions, poems from the textbook (in the mother tongue or Hindi) may be taught as group activity with movements. This would enable students to recognize pitch and timbre, understand volume,follow basic rhythm and be acquainted with different kinds of time cycles. Preliminary knowledge of melody and rhythm should be imparted through singing and movement.

Experimenting with different types of sounds produced through the body, through objects found in the immediate surrounding such as utensils, stones, paper, leaves, drums and whistles and environmental sounds would aid the student to associate common sounds heard outside the classroom with what is taught inside it. Games of music and drama can also be played. Use of regional language, common proverbs and maxims, riddles, indigenous games that have song, rhythm and movement inherent in them may be included in the curriculum. Themes such as festivals, fairs, market scenes, the traffic in the streets, the policeman at the crossroad are basic material for enactment. Short poems on themes such as these should be recited and sung along with improvised sound patterns and movements. These could become a part of enactment. These themes could also become topics for drawing. These activities will bring about a sense of beauty and aesthetics, social awareness and personal development.

Executing rhythmic patterns through body movements, singing, reciting, narrating and articulating sound patterns might also be related to the chapter on animals in Environmental Studies. These activities could thematically be expanded upon through moving together, sleeping and waking up as animals do and mimicking their
reactions to different sounds they hear. The ‘supposing we were…’game of mimicking something other than oneself helps increasing cognitive power as well as personal development. It is useful to  interlink activities of movement with those addressing space and speech because such integration would work towards total development, adding to the child’s insight. Activities like walks and gaits of different animals, producing their sounds and combining them with rhythmic beats by stamping feet, striking different parts of the body and articulating vocal sound patterns are methodical progression for children to discover their own bodies.

It is important for students to see performances of regional and urban theatre organizations, crafts and painting exhibitions, museums, monuments, parks and gardens, fields, trees and shrubs, visit melas and traditional market places or haats since this is what comprise their surroundings. They may also be taken to visit workshops of local artisans or crafts-persons in the community. This will become an opportunity to expose them to the social life and heritage of a community. These visits should be an illustrated extension of what they learn as a part of their curriculum. They could have interactive peer discussions along with the teacher about their observations. Different aspects of local theatre performances such as a play’s story, its characters, its music by way of sounds, singing and instruments used, and movement and dances as also props and costumes could become points for analytical discussions. Seeing music and dance performances other than what Bollywood has to offer and then comparing what they have seen with pop culture would become instrumental in expanding on cultural understanding. The aim must be to expose children to music and dance of different states and regions so that they comprehend and appreciate the diverse culture of the country. The students should be encouraged to interact with artist, performers, artisans and crafts-persons. These experts could be requested to have interactive participatory sessions in which their process and method of work could be explained. This would become an opportunity for the students to have hands on experience in understanding methods and work-processes used in creativity.

Some Strategies

  • Activities need to be linked to ideas through which children can experience relationships and associations as well as to clearly see and understand the surroundings of which they are an integral part.

  • Concepts of space, movement, language, speech, structure, visuals, sounds, teamwork and expanding existing material provide a variety of mediums for children to express experiences, reactions, ideas, thoughts and inner feelings.

  • Involving all children and not just those who are more “active” in the mentioned activities will give them time and space to open up.

  • Gender stereotyping must be avoided. Just as girls should be engaged in physically vigorous activities, boys can also participate in the more lyrical movements.

  • Sharing individual activities encourages group activities among children and team spirit to work together.

  • Each kind of material used in the learning process has its own individual possibilities and limitations. Identifying and understanding these is important since this is the base on which any learning process stands. Spending time in drawing out children’s responses and opinions helps in them becoming a part of the reflective process.

  • This syllabus is a reference for teachers, which will facilitate them to create fresh exercises that would suit the group of children with whom the teacher is working.

        Classes I – II

Theme and Questions


Suggested Activities

Suggested Resources/Note for the Teacher

Languages Rhymes and Poems

  • Can you follow the rhythm in a rhyme or a poem? Can you move while reciting a poem? Can you sing a poem?
  • Coordinating performance with other subject areas as well as individual and group activities.
  •  Playing simple indigenous games that might involve creating rhythmic and nonrhythmic sound patterns, singing, recitation and movement
  •  The teacher could make the children play local indigenous childhood games that have very definite structures based on recitation, tune, rhythm and movement.
  •  He/she could take the children outside the classroom and recite rhymes and poems bringing in sounds heard in the environment. For example the poem chhuk-chhuk gadi in the textbook Rimjhim – 1 has the possibility of bringing music, rhythm and movement together


  •  Can you tell a story? Can you create different sounds and movements to make your story interesting? What kind of sound patterns can you make?
  • Expressing vocally by using simple intonations and inflection, vowels, consonants, syllables and gibberish sounds
  •  Simple improvisation on themes based on what children commonly see in the immediate surroundings
  •  Listening and telling stories to each other; creating sounds first only with consonants, then only with vowels and finally with both; mimicking sounds of animals, of vendors, mechanical and traffic sounds, and the natural elements
  •  The teacher could identify and narrate stories commonly associated with different regions in the country
  •  With the teacher’s encouragement children should be asked to narrate incidents which they have experienced.
  •  The teacher could take the children outside the classroom and relate a story bringing in sounds heard in the environment.
  •  Drawing what it sees in the surroundings; drawing images created through story telling improvisations


  •  Which animals can you move like? Can you sound like them? Can you make a story in which you can use these sounds and use different movements? Can you make your body move along with the vocal sounds that you make?
  •  Developing sensory ability, understanding basic functioning of different body parts and using these as communicating tools
  •  Touching and feeling textural quality of different parts of own body like hair, cheeks, elbow, sole of the foot, knuckles and lips; using hands and feet to produce different sounds through clapping, tapping and stamping
  •  The teacher could, for instance, interactively play the ‘supposing we were…’ game of mimicking something other than oneself.
  •  The story of Natkhat Chuha in the textbook Rimjhim – 2 has great scope for enactment and bringing music, rhythm and movement together focusing on learning through joy.
  •  The story entitled The Wind and the Sun in the English Textbook Marigold Book II could be used for understanding nature through enactment.


Shapes and Space

  • What are the different kinds of objects that you see in your surroundings? Do they have different shapes? Can you compare the shapes of these different objects?
  •  Do you experience the difference in spaces when you leave your home to come to school/ when you return to your home after playing outside?
  •  Which are the musical instruments that you have seen? Can you describe what they look like? Do they have different shapes?
  •  Recognizing and understanding the importance of shapes and spaces
  •  Associating objects with shapes and sounds
  •  Creating shapes by making formations through groupmovements in different spaces
  •  Identifying musical instruments with different shapes and sizes and recognizing their sounds
  •  The teacher could ask the children to produce sounds using different objects that might be hollow, solid and might be made of various materials and textures.


  •  Can you count the number of objects in your immediate surroundings? Do you see the different shapes that the numbers have? Can you draw the shapes of these numbers?
  • Associating shapes with numbers
  •  Forming shapes of numbers through group movements such as the formation of 8 • Drawing the shapes on which specific numbers are based such as lines, circles, semicircles
  • The teacher could select objects of different sizes, shapes and numbers and ask the children to identify these.
  • They could use traditional folk art such as Worli and Madhubani motifs for introducing the children to different approaches to design.


  •  Have you noticed the different kinds of patterns that objects in your surroundings have? What kind of a pattern does your frock/ shirt/ bedspread/ matka/ chatai/ have? Are there any patterns in the books you study?
  • Developing the ability to combining forms for creating simple patterns and designs
  • Developing an aesthetic sense to recognize the beautiful in the surroundings
  •  Physical movements in groups like walking, skipping, hopping, bending, creating different postures and running and coming into different positions to form patterns and formations • Creating designs and patterns on different surfaces like on the floor, walls, paper, cloth
  •  Traditional handicrafts, designs and patterns in embroidery, paintings and alpana and rangoli could be used to show different designs.
  •  The choreographic use of patterns in regional dances is common. Children might be shown these during festivals.
  •  The children could be asked to create their own dance using different geometrical formations such as the circle, straight lines, curves, formations of eight, semicircles and angles


  •  What are the different kinds of games that you play? Do you know any games that are based on spaces, shapes and numbers?
  • Associating spaces, shapes and numbers with indigenous, local games
  • Identify such games that the children know and let them teach these games to each other.
  • The children should be encouraged to explain the game in detail focusing on developing the verbal expression meaningfully.
  •  The teacher could identify indigenous games such as common games like unch-neech, vish-amrit and other local games which might be based on the use of different spaces


  •  Can you narrate a story and count how many characters the story has? Have you heard any story in which shapes, spaces, and numbers are important? Can you find such stories in your textbook? Could you enact these stories?
  •  Recognizing the importance of shapes, numbers and spaces in everyday life.
  •  Recognizing the relationship between content and performance
  •  Selecting texts from the textbook for enactment
  •  Enacting lessons
  •  The teacher could choose a story such as the Inside Outside story of the “Shapes and Spaces” lesson in Math-Magic Book 1 for enactment. This would include practically explaining through ‘doing’ and experiencing the different mathematical concepts.
  •  Math-Magic Book 2 has a pictorial story called “The Flute Man and the Rats” which could be explained and understood interactively as well as enacted. These stories could also become topics for drawing.

                        Class III – V

Theme and Questions


Suggested Activities

Suggested Resources/Note for the Teacher



  •  Apart from the rhythm and tune in a poem what else does a poem convey? Can a poem convey a story? Can you imagine and follow the story that the poem tells?
  • There are some poems that do not tell a story but do speak about a theme. What are the different ways in which you can describe what a poem conveys?
  •  Basic understanding of content
  • Verbal articulation and creative expression
  • Enactments
  • Coordinating the body, voice and mind in relevance to thematic content of a text
  •  The students should be encouraged to narrate the poem as a story
  • They could write what they have narrated
  • Encourage them to draw pictures of what they have written
  • Add rhythmic patterns, a tune, expressions, gestures and movements to the poem and enact it
  • The teacher could choose a poem such as “The Balloon Man” in the English textbook Marigold Book – 3 and encourage the children to narrate, write and draw the poem
  • The poems “Mirch ka Mazaa” in the textbook Rimjhim – 3 and “Parhakku ki Sujh” in the textbook Rimjhim – 4 are different from the poem ”Man ke Bholebhale Badal” in Rimjhim – 3. The teacher could initiate an interactive discussion with the students on the differences of textual content.
  • Children should be encouraged to

Story-telling and Structured Articulation

  •  What kinds of stories interest you? Do you like narrating stories or do you like listening to them? What attracts you most about story-telling?
  • How can you make telling a story interesting? Can you feel your voice moving up and down, going sometimes high and sometimes low?
  •  Verbal expression
  • Enabling simple use of intonation and inflection in speech
  • Describing out-of-routine activities and experiences in order to create stories
  • Inventing games for story building such as beginning a description of an incident with a phrase such as “Do you know what happened one day…?”
  •  Developing the student’s imagination by creating an incident through using a phrase such as “what would happen if I were to have wings/ If we had to communicate only through gestures / If I had to live under water...
  • They could enact what they imagine
  • Spontaneous conversations among the students must be encourage
  • Encourage the children to narrate stories with the changed use of the voice. For instance the story Shekhibaaz Makkahi in the textbook Rimjhim – 3 could become an excellent example for voice modulation.
  • Children could be encouraged to create their own stories. Such stories could first be narrated, then written. They could also be drawn and enacted. The teachers could include select stories in their school magazine.

Narrating and Enactment

  • Have you ever read or acted in a play? Is there any story in your textbook which you think can be enacted? What happens to a story when it is read out as a play? Would you like to write a play? It would be great fun writing a play you can enact with your classmates.
  • Nurturing creativity
  • Strengthening imagination through make-belief
  • Imagining situations and recreating them through enactment
  • Experiencing emotion and expressing vocally and through body language in performance
  • Enacting experiences through physical movements, vocal and other sound patterns, narration and recitation
  •  Play games that involve imagining different geographic regions of the country like the desert, the sea, mountains, snow, rains and jungles and reacting to different weather conditions
  • Moving on different surfaces, in different moods and to different rhythmic patterns
  • Applying these movements to texts
  • The story Kirmich ki Gaind in the textbook Rimjhim – 4 speaks of the heat of the summer. The teacher could interactively discuss with the students how they react to different seasons. How do they dress and how do they feel? Do they feel a climatic change?
  • Alice in Wonderland in the English textbook Marigold – 4 could become a take-off point for imagination and endeavoring to enact what is imagined

Mathematics Shapes and Patterns

  • Have you noticed the number of curves and angles an object has? Can you name objects that have curves? Which, among the objects that you see everyday have angles and edges? Can you name those that have angles as well as curves?
  • Can geometrical formations be used in dances? Do you recognize rhythmic patterns in musical phrases?
  • Have you seen different patterns being used to make flooring beautiful? Can you describe the grill designs of the windows and doors in your house?
  •  Have you seen the traditional rangoli and kolam decorating the floor or the different kinds of mandanas that decorate walls of the entrance of a house? Can you also make such designs?
  • Recognizing the use of geometrical formations in everyday life
  • Creating geometric formations
  • Recognizing the aesthetics of traditional designs used by different communities in different situations such as dance, decoration, weaving and architecture
  •  Creating geometric formations by moving in different spaces
  • Playing games associated with different shapes such as circles, lines and group formations
  • Memory game on the quantity of objects in the surrounding area
  • Coordinating body movement and sounds to make formations
  • Listening to music and analyzing rhythmic patterns and the kinds of instruments used
  • Replicating rhythmic patterns on improvised instruments
  • The teacher could call out different geometric shapes like circle, square, line, curve etc. to which the children could react by creating these formations in small groups or a single large group
  • Local indigenous games that are based on shapes and numbers could be identified by children and could be used as exercises
  • The teacher should explore with the students different kinds of sounds through different shapes and mediums such as wood, metal, stone, leather as well as the body.
  • Children could be encouraged to create an orchestra of different improvisational soundpatterns created through different mediums
  • Can you find out what other designs are traditionally used in different contexts?


  • Do objects look different when you see them from different angles? How does something look from a height? How does it look from a distance? Can you draw a picture of how an object such as a car or a box might look from different angles?
  • Recognizing differences in objects when viewed from different angles
  • Understanding concepts of perspective in the simplest way
  • Observing objects in the surroundings
  •  Drawing pictures of objects that have been observed
  • The teacher could refer to the first lesson Where to Look From in the textbook MathMagic Book – 3 to create more themes for observing and drawing
  • Games could be developed in which different spaces could be explored such as low-high, tall-short, spread out-contract etc.
  • Identifying objects in the surroundings could include differentiating between the mediums of which these objects are made. This could also lead to identifying the number of animate and inanimate objects.

(News) 80 schools will participate in three-day swimming meet in DPS Kalyanpur from October 3 to 5

80 schools will participate in three-day swimming meet in DPS Kalyanpur from October 3 to 5

Around 850 student swimmers of 80 schools of eastern states will participate in three-day CBSE East Zone swimming competition slated to be held here at DPS Kalyanpur from October 3 to 5.

Addressing reporters, Archana Nigam, principal of the host school, said the championship would be held in four age groups (U-12.14,16 and 19 years) in boys and girls category. There would be eight events for U-12 age group and 12 events for U-14 age group. Similarly, in under 16 and 19 years age group there would be 17 and 18 events respectively.

(News) CBSE is going to start online application facility for private candidates from 2016

CBSE is going to start online application facility for private candidates from 2016

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is going to introduce online application facility for private candidates starting from 2016.

“Online system of submission of applications for private candidates or those appearing for improvement of performance for Classes X and XII has been introduced, and will be implemented for the 2016 batch,” a statement from the CBSE read.

(Notification) National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) 2016

(Notification) National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) 2016


Exam Syllabus:

CBSE & NCERT Launches School Bhuvan : A portal dedicated to making geography interactive

CBSE & NCERT Launches School Bhuvan : A portal dedicated to making geography interactive

To make map-learning for class IX and X students more interesting, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has started a new portal in association with the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT). Not only will it show dedicated maps for water, weather, soil etc, it will also display satellite images at one click.

While interactive maps have been around for a while, they come at a rather high price, since such services are usually provided by private players, which dissuades many schools. The CBSE venture is expected to be more cost-effective. Already, to avail of such services from private providers, schools have to buy the entire e-learning module package, which can cost as much as Rs 1lakh. The CBSE is not only providing a specific service, but it is also expected to be at a minimal rate of Rs100 or so.

The portal has gone live and teachers in some schools have already started using it and found it effective. Unit head for senior secondary classes at The Orchid School, Ashwini Shah, who also teaches geography, said, "Until now, we were showing the children flat maps which are difficult to understand. However, the new system has dedicated maps with which concepts can be explained in detail. Moreover, satellite images are very helpful for children to remember."

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Human Ecology and Family Sciences (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Human Ecology and Family Sciences (Class 11 & 12)



The curriculum in Human Ecology and Family Sciences (HEFS), formerly known as Home Science, has been framed keeping in view the principles of the National Curriculum Framework-2005 of the NCERT. Traditionally, the field of Home Science encompasses five areas, namely, Food and Nutrition, Human Development and Family Studies, Fabric and Apparel, Resource Management and Communication and Extension. All these domains have their specific content and focus that contribute to the study of the individual and the family in Indian sociocultural context. The new curriculum has attempted to break away from the conventional framework of the discipline in significant ways. In the new conceptualization the boundaries between different areas of the discipline have been dissolved. This has been done to enable students to develop a holistic understanding of life in the home and outside. A special effort has been made to communicate respect for every student’s life at home and in society by making the curriculum appropriate for both boys and girls, living in different contexts, including those who are homeless. It has also been ensured that all the units address, in their content, the significant principles of equity, equality and inclusiveness. These include gender sensitivity, respect for diversity and plurality in relation to rural-urban-tribal location, caste, class, value for both traditional and modern influences, concern for society and pride in national symbols. Additionally, the novel approach has made concerted efforts, to integrate learning at school by building bridges with other subjects in the sciences and social sciences.

The practicals have an innovative and contemporary character and reflect the utilization of new technology and applications that would strengthen critical engagement with the lived realities of people. More specifically, there is a deliberate shift to field-based experiential learning. The practicals are designed to foster critical thinking. Further, conscious effort has been made to move away from stereotyped gender roles thus making the experiences more inclusive and meaningful for both boys and girls. It is imperative that the practicals are conducted keeping in mind the resources available with the family and community.

The course adopts a developmental framework in class XI using the life-span approach, starting with adolescence, the stage of development being experienced by the student. Beginning with one's own stage of development would instill interest and enable identification with the physical and emotional changes that the student is undergoing. Following this is the study of childhood and adulthood. In each unit, the challenges and concerns have been addressed along with the activities and resources necessary to meet these challenges.

For class XI the ‘self and family’ and the ‘home’ are focal points for understanding the dynamics of individual lives and social interaction. The rationale for using this approach is that it will enable the adolescent student to understand herself/himself in the context of the family, which in turn is nested within the wider Indian socio-cultural milieu.

For class XII, the emphasis is on ‘work and careers’ through the life-span. In this context, work is perceived as essential human activity that contributes to the development and sustenance of individuals, families and society. Its value is not linked only to its economic ramifications. The student will be helped to explore the
significance of work, jobs and careers and their interrelationship. To understand this concept, the student will be imparted life skills and work skills in the respective areas of HEFS. This will facilitate the acquisition of basic skills and orientation to advanced professional skills needed for specialization in the selected fields discussed in the course. It is significant that these skills will be useful for the student in her/his personal-social life, as well as serve as a springboard for pursuing a career in the future.


The Human Ecology and Family Sciences (HEFS) curriculum has been framed to enable the learners to:

1. Develop an understanding of the self in relation to family and society.
2. Understand one’s role and responsibilities as a productive individual and as a member of one’s family, community and society.
3. Integrate learning across diverse domains and form linkages with other academic subjects.
4. Develop sensitivity and undertake a critical analysis of issues and concerns of equity and diversity.
5. Appreciate the discipline of HEFS for professional careers.

 Class XI


Total Periods 180

Introduction: Evolution of the discipline and its relevance to the quality of life                                                                                                               2

Unit I: Understanding oneself: Adolescence                                                                                                                                                                60

A. Sense of self – understanding ‘Who am I’?

B. Characteristics and needs

C. Influences on identity formation

- Biological and physical changes
- Socio-cultural contexts
- Emotional changes
- Cognitive changes

D. Food, nutrition, health and fitness

E. Management of resources - time, money, energy and space

F. Fabric and apparel

G. Media and communication technology

H. Communication skills

I. Living and working in a global society

Unit II: Understanding family, community and society                                                                                                                                                 50

A. Relationships and interactions with ‘significant others’;
− Family
− School - peers and educators
− Community
− Society

B. Concerns and needs in diverse contexts: Family, school, community and society Key areas:
a. Health, nutrition and hygiene
b. Activity, work and environment
c. Resource availability and management
d. Learning, education and extension
e. Textile heritage of India

Unit III:

CBSE Expression Series on Mahatma Gandhi (Topic: ‘the Father of Nation’ Mahatma Gandhi')

 CBSE Expression Series on Mahatma Gandhi (Topic: ‘the Father of Nation’ Mahatma Gandhi')

To pay tribute to ‘the Father of Nation’ Mahatma Gandhi, on his birthday on 2nd October, CBSE announces Expression Series on Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd October, 2015.The details of this Expression Series are as follow:

i. To be held on 2nd October, 2015.
ii. The three categories of participation are:

a) Classes I to V,
b) Classes VI to VIII and
c) Classes IX to XII

iii. Topics are given in Annexure 1.
iv. Students may submit their entries as Essay/ Poem/ Drawing.
v. Entries may be submitted in any one of the 22 scheduled languages and English.
vi. Participation is voluntary. As it is a national holiday, interested participants may submit the entry from home or from a place as per their convenience.
vii. Entries may be submitted using any of the three following modes:

a) Online mode through the link to be made available on (Details given in Annexure II)
b) Uploading only the jpeg/ jpg/ doc file of the entry through the link to be made available on . (Details given in Annexure II)
c) Mobile App using the numbers (Details given in Annexure III)

  • For Classes I to V 7065963925
  • For Classes VI to VIII 7065963926
  • For Classes IX to XII 7065963927

Parents should think beyond doctors and engineers, says IAS Dr Madhavi Khode

Parents should think beyond doctors and engineers, says IAS Dr Madhavi Khode

Of late, women empowerment has been the societal buzzword with much emphasis being laid upon making the fairer sex self-sufficient, decisive and in authoritative position. Lending one of the finest examples to this cause is Dr. Madhavi Khode, an IAS officer of Maharashtra, who has been a topper and a gold medalist throughout her education. Dr Khode has an innate capacity to be different from others and an urge to excel. She has a very different perspective towards life and the society.

In an interactive session with Nagpur Today, Commissioner of Tribal Welfare Dr. Madhavi Khode shared her journey of making it to the coveted post. She also viewed that nothing comes easy in life and one must struggle hard to achieve the goals and dreams.

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Physics (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Physics  (Class 11 & 12)


The syllabus for Physics at the Higher Secondary Stage has been developed with a view that this stage of school education is crucial and challenging as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based curriculum. The recommendations of National Curriculum Framework-2005 have been followed, keeping the disciplinary approach with rigour and depth, appropriate to the comprehension level of learners. Due care has been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international standards. The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding.

It is expected that the syllabus will help to develop an interest in the learners to study Physics as a discipline and inculcate in learners the abilities, useful concepts of Physics in real-life situations for making learning of Physics relevant, meaningful and interesting. The learner is expected to realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.


The higher secondary stage is crucial and challenging stage of school education as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based curriculum. Physics is being offered as an elective subject at the higher secondary stage of school education. At this stage, the students take up Physics, as a discipline, with a purpose of pursuing their future careers in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. There is a need to provide the learners with sufficient conceptual background of Physics which would eventually make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.

The present effort of reforming and updating the Physics curriculum is an exercise based on the feedback received from the school system about existing syllabus and curricular material, large expansion of Physics knowledge, and also the educational and curricular concerns and issues provided in the National Curriculum Framework-2005.

The recommendations of National Curriculum Framework-2005 have been followed, keeping the disciplinary approach with rigour and depth, appropriate to the comprehension level of learners. Due care has been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time, it is comparable to the international standards. Also, it is essential to develop linkages with other disciplines for better learning of Physics concepts and establishing relationship with daily-life situations and life-skills.


  • Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of content.

  • Promoting process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts/content, useful in real-life situations for making Physics learning more relevant, meaningful and interesting.

  • Emphasis on use of SI Units, Symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as
    per international standards.

  • Emphasis on Physics-related technological/industrial aspects to cope up with changing demand of society committed to the use of Physics, technology and informatics.

  • Providing logical sequencing of the ‘Units’ of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better learning and matching the concepts/content with comprehension level of the learners.

  • Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline of Physics or with other disciplines; reducing the descriptive portion and providing suitable formulation/depth of treatment appropriate to the comprehension level of learners, making room for contemporary core - topics and emerging curricular areas in Physics.

  • The syllabus is arranged in Units spread over two years duration. The Units are so sequenced as to provide different dimensions of Physics as a discipline. The time allocation for learning Physics content per Unit in terms of instructional periods have been mentioned for each Unit to help the Textbook Development Team members to develop the instructional material so as to cover it within the time frame. Each Unit has been arranged with a topic, content related practical work (one core experiment, two activities to be evaluated) and suggested investigatory projects (one project to be evaluated). There is an imperative need for evaluating the learners through Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of various concepts covered in a Unit. With this background, the Physics curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to:

  • Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm ground work and foundation for further learning Physics at the tertiary level more effectively and learning the relationship with daily-life situations;

  • Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines;

  • Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications;

  • Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision-making and investigatory skills in the learners;

  • Promote problem-solving abilities and creative thinking to develop interest in the learners in the study of Physics as a discipline;

  • Understand the relationship between nature and matter on scientific basis, develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate the contribution of Physics towards the improvement of quality of life and human welfare;

  • Physics teaching-learning at the higher secondary stage enables the learners to comprehend the contemporary knowledge and develop aesthetic sensibilities and process skills. The experimental skills and process-skills developed together with conceptual Physics knowledge prepare the learners for more meaningful learning experiences and contribute to the significant improvement of quality of life. The learners would also appreciate the role and impact of Physics and technology, and their linkages with overall national development.


(Total Periods: 180)

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

(Periods 10)

Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived
units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics

(Periods 30)

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime and position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components.

Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion

(Periods 16)

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

(Periods 16)

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

(Periods 18)

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation

(Periods 14)

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

(Periods 28)

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp , Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.

Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Mathematics (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Mathematics (Class 11 & 12)


General Guidelines

(i) All concepts/identities must be illustrated by situational examples.
(ii) The language of ‘word problems’ must be clear, simple and unambiguous.
(iii) Problems given should be testing the understanding of the subject.
(iv) All proofs to be produced in a manner that allow the learner to see flow of reasons. Wherever possible, give more than one proof.
(v) Motivate results, wherever possible. Prove explicitly those results where a short and clear argument reinforces mathematical thinking and reasoning. There must be emphasis on correct way of expressing the arguments.


(Total Periods 180)


1. Sets

(Periods 12)

Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set, Properties of Complement sets.

2. Relations and Functions

(Periods 14)

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R × R × R).
Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

3. Trigonometric Functions

(Periods 18)

Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x+ y) and cos (x + y) in terms of sin x, sin y, cos x and cos y. Deducing the identities like following:

Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sinθ = sinα, cosθ = cosα and tanθ = tanα. Proofs and simple applications of sine and cosine formulae.


1. Principle of Mathematical Induction

(Periods 06)

Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations


(Periods 10)

3. Linear Inequalities

(Periods 10)

Linear inequalities, Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables - graphially.

4. Permutations and Combinations

(Periods 12)

Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. Permutations and combinations derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

5. Binomial Theorem

(Periods 08)

History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

6. Sequence and Series

(Periods 10)

Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.), Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P. Arithmetic and geometric series, infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.). Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum
to n terms of the special series : ∑ n, ∑ n2 and ∑ n3


(Result) CBSE: UGC NET June 2015 Exam

CBSE: UGC NET June 2015 Result Released

Exam Name: UGC NET

Year: June 2015

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Chemistry (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Chemistry (Class 11 & 12)



Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school education because at this stage specialised discipline based, content oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their career in basic sciences
or professional courses like medicines, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.

National Curriculum Framework - 2005 recommends a disciplinary approach with appropriate rigour and depth with the care that syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. It emphasizes a coherent focus on important ideas within the discipline that are properly sequenced to optimize learning. It recommends that theoretical component of Higher Secondary Science should emphasize on problem solving methods and the awareness of historical development of key concepts of science be judiciously integrated into content. The present exercise of syllabus development in Chemistry at Higher Secondary Stage is based on this framework.

Salient features of the present syllabus are thus:

  • Some background of Chemistry from secondary stage is assumed; however, no specific knowledge of topics in Chemistry is pre-supposed.

  • The course is self-contained and broadly covers fundamental concepts of Chemistry.

  • Attempt has been made to see discipline of Chemistry does not remain only the science of facts but becomes related to modern applications in the world around us.

  • The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the ‘Units’ of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding.

  • Emphasis has been on promoting process - skills, problem solving abilities and applications of concepts of Chemistry useful in real life situation for making learning of Chemistry more relevant, meaningful and interesting.

  • An effort has been made on the basis of feedback, to remove repetition besides reducing the content by suitably integrating the different content areas.

  • Practical syllabus has two components. There are core experiments to be undertaken by the students in the classroom and will be part of examination while each student will carry out one investigatory project and submit the report for the examination. With this background, the Chemistry curriculum at the higher secondary stage attempts to

  • promote understanding of basic principles in Chemistry while retaining the excitement in Chemistry;

  • develop an interest in students to study Chemistry as discipline;

  • strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage and to provide firm foundation for further learning of Chemistry at tertiary level more effectively;

  •  develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate contribution of Chemistry towards the
    improvement of quality of human life;

  • develop problem solving skills and nurture curiosity, aesthetic sense and creativity;

  • inculcate values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life and preservation of the environment;

  • make the learner realise the interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics, Biology, Geology, etc;

  • equip students to face challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, whether
    industries and agriculture.


(Total Periods 180)

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

(Periods 14)

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

(Periods 16)

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

(Periods 8)

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements –atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

(Periods 16)

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

(Periods 14)

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points,role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit VI: Thermodynamics

(Periods 18)

Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction.

Unit VII: Equilibrium

(Periods 20)

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), , buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Unit VIII : Redox Reactions

(Periods 6)

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers , applications of redox reactions.

Unit IX Hydrogen

(Periods 8)

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, use and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X: s- Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

(Periods 14)

Group 1 and Group 2 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 , and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements

(Periods 16)

General Introduction to p-Block Elements

Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boronphysical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses : silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques

(News) Tamil Nadu tops the list of states, Best overall aggregates in class XII CBSE exams in 2015

(News) Tamil Nadu tops the list of states, Best overall aggregates in class XII CBSE exams in 2015

With seven of its schools among India's best 20, Tamil Nadu tops the list of states going by the best overall aggregates in class XII CBSE exams in 2015. The data, exclusively available with TOI, also reveals that Bengaluru houses five schools among the top 20.

And it's not that private schools are the only ones coming out with flying colours. Two central government-run Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas also feature in this year's list of top 20.

The overall aggregate for a school was arrived at by taking out the average marks obtained by all the students who took the class XII CBSE exams.

And not just Tamil Nadu or Bengaluru, the entire south has put up a stellar performance. As was reflected in the class XII 2015 results where the top two regions in terms of pass percentage for the second consecutive year were Thiruvananthapuram and Chennai, 15 schools among the top 20 with best aggregates are from the southern states.Apart from Chennai and Bengaluru, two schools from Kerala and one from Andhra Pradesh has made it to the list too.

NCERT Revised Syllabus of Biology (Class 11 & 12)

(Download) NCERT Revised Syllabus of Biology (Class 11 & 12)


In the present attempt of the NCERT to revise the Biology syllabus of the Classes XI and XII, several documents like ‘Learning without Burden’, the National Curriculum Framework- 2005, the report of the ‘National Focus Group on Teaching of Science’ as well as reports of several external and internal reviews carried out, helped to decide the main focus of the revision. Hence, the revised syllabus aims primarily at reducing the information load while ensuring at the same time that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of Biology continues to be available within the framework.

The Biology Syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes while the children learn new concepts besides getting an exposure to contemporary areas of Biology. This syllabus aims also at emphasising the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants, as well as highlighting the interrelationships of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts without any jarring jumps. The empirical experience gained and practical exercises carried out during the course would prepare the student to handle Biology easily at higher levels in case she/he opts to continue further studies in this area.

The revised syllabus stresses the connection of the study of Biology to real life problems -use of biological discoveries/innovations in everyday life - in environment, industry, medicine, health and agriculture.

Since it was important that the quality of Biology education at the higher secondary level was not compromised in any way, the reduction in load from the syllabus required a very careful selection of topics to be taught. The Committee chose to leave topics out if: the question about why the child needs to study
the topic at the particular stage could not be answered; if the topic had no direct relevance to the child i.e. was not contextual; if the content was repetitive across stages with no change in expected understanding, and if any topic was in isolation with no evident horizontal or vertical linkages. The need for a network of
ideas and cross-linking between the areas being identified was deemed very important. While deciding on the units/topics and the depth of each topic for the higher secondary level, a holistic view of the syllabus across all stages from the primary to the higher secondary and beyond was taken. Reducing the use of too
many technical terms and avoiding very large numbers of examples will also help to make the content a little lighter. The importance of careful selection of illustrations and their use to make the concepts more explicit was stressed; in Biology the quality of illustrations can make or mar any attempt at good textbooks/

The principal objective at this stage would be to explore the variations amongst the living and developing respect for the diversities, and to appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are also built on essentially simple processes. Learning Biology should uncover these elementary aspects and illustrate their
linkage to more complex phenomena. It was also felt that the contributions of scientists (women scientists in particular) that led to critical and important discoveries in Biology should be highlighted, not merely through a chronological listing, but through brief biographical discussions, in an effort to bring out the
processes that led to the discovery of principles and ideas in Biology. These would stimulate critical and creative thinking. Besides, the proposed course at the higher secondary stage provides substantial orientation to the students to professional/career opportunities available in medicine, agriculture, research, teaching and industry.

The syllabus also takes up issues pertaining to environment, health and other ethical issues that arise with any interference of human beings in the natural processes, which have great relevance from the societal point of view. A discussion on these in the prescribed syllabus would help tackle prevalent misconceptions and empower the student to playa rational, responsible and informed role in society. The teaching time in terms of number of periods available is indicated for each uni

The young student would get an exposure to the various branches of Biology in a more contextual and friendly manner as they studied various units in the syllabus; each unit could also provide a glimpse of the career opportunities in the particular area. After studying any unit, the child gets an opportunity to think
more deeply and to form informed opinions. The description of the diverse/various tools and techniques used in the study of Biology have not been collated to form a distinct unit in the syllabus. It is envisaged that the teachers who teach this syllabus and the textbooks prepared based on it, will discuss techniques in a contextual manner rather than distanced from real experimental situations.

The committee faced a dilemma while considering the topic of animal physiology: whether to deal with ‘animal’ or ‘human’ physiology. But the moment the focus of discussion shifted - from the ‘subject’ dictated one to the child - and the available time was considered, it was evident that ‘human’ physiology was more appropriate at this stage. The student is closest to herself and is curious about the functioning of the human body. The ‘science’ understood after a study of human physiology could be meaningfully applied to other organisms.

The students should be encouraged to do at least one project, may be in Class XI. The basic objective of these projects should be to provide the child with an exposure to what it means to carry out an investigation, what research methodologies are, how data is analysed and presented and, how to interpret data and
draw conclusions. The project should provide space for the child to choose a theme in the area of her interest, think independently allow autonomous working and also provide freedom to present the project in any format of her/his choice, thus improving her/his communication skills.

The syllabus committee hopes that the spirit of the exercise is carried forward to the textbook and the classrooms, across the country, ultimately meeting our objective of reducing the burden on the child while making learning Biology exciting. Teaching should emphasise on ways of acquiring knowledge rather than on conveying knowledge.


(Total Periods = 180)

I. Diversity in Living World

( Periods 25 )

What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domain of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy–Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups- Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm and Angiosperm (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.

Salient features and classification of animals- non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

II. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

( Periods 25 )

Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

III. Cell Structure and Function

(Periods 40)

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles– structure and function; Endomembrane system- endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus–nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules–structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipid, nucleic acids; Enzymes–types, properties, enzyme action.

Cell division : Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

IV. Plant Physiology

(Periods 45)

Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport– Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water– Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration– Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients– Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism – Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Where does photosynthesis take place; How many pigments are involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations – Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators–auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

V. Human Physiology

(Periods 45)

Digestion and absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats (for box item not to be evaluated); Egestion;
Nutritional and digestive disorders– PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans– Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational
respiratory disorders.

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system– Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system–structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function– Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders-Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle – contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system- Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

(News) Lalita Prasida wins award at Google Science Fair for Corn Cobs based Water Purifier

Lalita Prasida wins award at Google Science Fair for Corn Cobs based Water Purifier

Lalita Prasida Sripada Srisai, a class IX student from Damanjodi in Koraput district in Odisha won the ‘Community Impact Award’ at the prestigious Google Science Fair in California on Tuesday.

This student of DPS Damanjodi developed a low-cost bio-absorbent based water purifier which uses waste corn cobs as key ingredient. She has won the award in 13-15 years age group. The winners of the fifth annual Google Science Fair were announced live from Google Headquarters in Mountain View, California. As part of this award, Lalita received 10,000 US dollars as prize money. Lalita will be further supported for one year by the organisation to build on her project.

(News) CBSE directs its schools to include mother tongue in admission forms

(News) CBSE directs its schools to include mother tongue in admission forms

Admission forms in Central Board of Secondary Education schools will have to compulsorily include information of a child's mother tongue as well as preference of the language for study under the three-language formula.

In a communication to all affiliated schools, CBSE said a column must be included in the application form for admission in keeping with the recommendation of the board's examination committee on compulsory registration of mother tongue.

Instructions have also been given to obtain information relating to the preference of languages for study under the three-language formula.

Online Application for Private Candidate for Examination 2016 (Class 12)

Online Application for Private Candidate for Examination 2016

Exam Name: CBSE

Class: 12

Year: 2016

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