National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) | Class XII Syllabus - Biology
Economics Syllabus Class XII
Sr Secondary Course (Biology)
Biology arose in a two fold manner - firstly, as a
practising art towards exploring and improving a
variety of usable plant and animal products as well
as towards maintaining good health; secondly, as an
academic pursuit out of human curiosity to know
about themselves and other living beings and to
understand the position of humankind on the planet
Earth. In other words, the storehouse of knowledge
about living beings started building up only when
humans were curious to know about life. In order to
respect and appreciate the great diversity in living
things at all levels of organisation, and to understand
the impact of biological development on our life style,
an attempt has been made in the present syllabus to
bring out the different facts of
Life. Hence, the themes that highlight the contribution
of biology to the analysis and solution of problems
of daily life like growth, health, nutrition, and
environment, have been chosen as components of
the content. The topics based on these themes will
be dealt at the individual and community levels. Efforts
have been made to reflect biology as not merely a
correlational science but also as an experimental
discipline by dealing with different tools and
techniques used in biological studies. However, the
vastness of knowledge has delimited the scope of
each topic included in the syllabus. Besides integrating
the content and the depth at which it could be dealt,
modernity of the concepts as well as emerging areas
like Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Immunology
have also been introduced. The syllabus includes
some optional modules to help the students to enrich
in areas of their choice which should facilitate them
to choose a career or pursue higher education.
The course would enable the learner to :-
- acquire knowledge of biological terms, facts,
concepts, principles, and processes in order to
understand the living world as a whole.
- appreciate diversity in the living world as also
inter-relationships of various living organisms,
ecological balance in nature, and the role of
biology in human welfare.
- visualise the hazards of nuclear weapons and
environmental pollution, and to create an
awareness for ecological use of natural resources
in the service of humankind.
- develop insight into the role and impact of
Biology in various allied professions such as
medicine, agriculture forestry, biotechnology,
veterinary sciences and pharmacology.
- Develop interest in the living world with an aim
to respect life.
As a part of this process, the syllabus also aims
at developing the following abilities in the
--(i) apply knowledge and understanding of
biology in situations which are novel and
unfamiliar by developing abilities to analyse,
hypothesise, draw conclusion and predict
--(ii) develop skills in handling, improvising and
manipulating scientific apparatus, and
recording observations and data.
--(iii) develop scientific attitude through the mode
of curiosity and evidence for proof.
The syllabus contains 8 core modules and 4 optional
modules which are as follows:-
CORE MODULES Marks
1. Diversity and evolution of life 6
2. Cell, Cell functions and Tissues 10
3. Functional morphology and Life
processes in plants 11
4. Functional morphology and Life
processes in animals 11
5. Reproduction and Development 10
6. Heredity and Genetics 10
7. Population Explosion and Family
8. Environmental Biology 8
OPTIONAL MODULES Marks
1. Tools and Techniques in Biology 10
2. Economic Biology 10
3. Health Science 10
4. Emerging Areas in Biology-
and Immunobiology 10
DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
The core modules are compulsory for all learners.
From the list of optional modules the learner can take
any 1 course of his/her choice. Thus, each learner
takes 9 modules in all.
Core Modules 70
Optional Modules 10
Practical Examination 20
Grand Total 100
MODULE 1: DIVERSITY AND
EVOLUTION OF LIFE
Study Time : 25 hours Marks : 6
This module is intended to enable the learner to visualize the origin of life on earth and the vast
diversity in the living world from simple to more
complex and to attempt to group them together at
various levels of classification. In addition, it points
out that studies of fossils and changes in population
in time and space provide evidence that evolution
has occured and is still occurring and provides an
explanation for the mechanism of these changes.
- Unit 1 Classification of organisms
l Principles of classification and taxonomic
l Linnaeus and binomial nomenclature, general rule
for naming, writing and printing of scientific
names of organisms.
l Taxonomic categories (taxa) from, species upto
- Unit 2 Viruses
l Characteristics of viruses, taking examples of
TMV, Polio, HIV, bacteriophage T2.
- Unit 3 Scheme of five kingdom classification
- Unit 4 Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera)
l Chemical nature, general structure and
characteristics of bacteria with common
l Mention of useful and harmful bacteria like
Lactobacillus, Rhizobium, Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, Clostridium tetani,
- Unit 5 Kingdom Protista
l General characteristics and classification upto
phyla with examples of Amoeba, Entamoeba,
Plasmodium, Euglena & Diatoms
- Unit 6 Fungi
l General characteristics of fungi, useful and
harmful fungi, examples-Rhizopus.(Breadmould), Yeast, Penicillium notatum, Puccinia graminis (wheat rust)
- Unit 7 Kingdom Plantae
Algae- Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra
Bryophyta (Liverworts and Mosses), Pteridophyta
(Ferns), Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms and
Angiosperms), General morphological features of
flower and fruit and some common examples of the
following families: Poaceae (Graminae), Brassicaceae
(Cruciferae) and Leguminosae (only Papilionaceae).
- Unit 8 Kingdom Animalia
Main characteristics, classification upto phylum and
common examples of Porifera, Coelenterata,
Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida,
Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata; Chordata
upto classes, classification of Mammalia upto
subclasses, with important examples for all.
- Unit 9 Origin and Evolution of Life
a) Origin of life : Views, spontaneous generation,
experiments of Pasteur, Abiogenesis
hypothesis, Oparin’s hypothesis of origin of life,
b) Organic evolution, progressive and retrogressive
evolution, evidences of evolution.
Theories of evolution - Lamarckism, Darwinism,
Mutation Theory, Neo Darwinism.
Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints While
explaining taxonomic categories of classification
examples should be given (in a tabular form, e.g. complete classification of the house of cat and man.)
While discussing plant and animal groups, their
characteristics, levels of organisation and other
features should be given in a tabular form. The fact
that evolution is a continuous process should be
Suggested extended learning Find out what
microbiology deals with. Read articles on the studies
made by evolutionists regarding the history of
development of mankind in magazines and
newspapers. Read and see films on Civilization.
MODULE 2 : CELL, CELL FUNCTION
Study Time : 30 hours Marks : 10
This module is designed to get an insight into the
entire living world as composed of basically the same
kind of unit structure - the cell. All functions in the
living body are ultimately the outcome of the activities
of cells. The cells are composed of numerous
organelles - each concerned with its specific function.
Though fundamentally similar, the cells show a vast
array of modification and specialization forming tissues
to suit the need of different parts of the body and
more so in the different kinds of organisms. The
learner should be able to understand and appreciate
that all organisms starts their life as a tiny single cell
which, by repeated division and growth, may finally
give rise to giants like elephant or banyan tree.
- Unit 1 Cell Structure
Discovery of cell, cell theory, cell-its shape, size,
physical and chemical composition, generalized cell
structure as seen under compound and electron
microscopes, differences between animal and
Cell organelles - structure and functions of cell wall,
plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes,
Golgi bodies, micro bodies, Mitochondria,
chloroplast, centrosome, cilia and flagella, nucleus
(excluding chemical nature of chromosomes) and cell
- Unit 2 Cell Division :
Mitosis and its significance. Meiosis and its
- Unit 3 Tissues :
Plant Tissues-Meristems-Apical, Intercalary and
Lateral: Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma,
Xylem and Phloem.
Animal Tissues-Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and
- Unit 4 Levels of Organisation (cell to organism)
A general idea about the ascending order of levels
of organization-cell, tissues, organ, organ system and organism.
Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Suitable
examples from daily life should be taken in order to
explain the levels of organisation, for example the root systems of a tree is one of its organ systems
having root, root hairs etc.
Suggested Extended Learning Find out about
‘cancer’ cells which differ from normal cells in that
they multiply rapidly and wildly and do not follow
the normal rules of cellular conduct. Get to know
about the tools involved in the investigation of cells.
MODULE 3: FUNCTIONAL
MORPHOLOGY AND LIFE
PROCESSES IN PLANTS
Study time : 35 hrs Marks : 11
This module intends to highlight the complex nature
of the structure and function of the different organsystems
in plants with special emphasis on the life processes occuring in higher plants (e.g. in a flowering
Elementary idea about
different types of root, stem and leaf and their
- Unit 1 :- Root
Primary growth, primary structure of dicot and
monocot roots, mode of origin of lateral roots.
Secondary growth in dicot roots.
Special features of root for common functions of
anchorage, growth in soil, absorption, conduction of
water and mineral salts, as well as special functions
of storage and respiration. Distribution of mechanical
tissues to withstand pulling strain.
- Unit 2 Stem
Primary growth, primary structure of dicot and
monocot stem, mode of origin of lateral branches.
Secondary growth in dicot stem.
Growth rings (annual rings), sap wood and heart
wood. Structural features for support, exposing
leaves and flowers to favourable positions, conduction
as well as special functions of storage and
Distribution of mechanical tissues to withstand
- Unit 3 Absorption and Transport
Active and passive absorption, diffusion, osmosis,
major theories on transport of water and organic
- Unit 4 Nutrition
Macronutrients and micronutrients. Deficiency
- Unit 5 Leaf
Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaf.
Distribution of mechanical tissues, stomata, hairs and
hydathodes, vascular tissues, air spaces etc.
- Unit 6 Transpiration and Guttation
Processes, magnitude and significance of transpiration
and guttation, and factors affecting them.
- Unit 7 Photosynthesis
The process and its significance. Factors affecting
- Unit 8 Respiration
Aerobic, anaerobic, respiratory quotient, factors
affecting respiration (excluding biochemical
- Unit 9 Flower and Inflorescence
Parts of a typical flower, flowers in dicots and
monocots, arrangement and condition of various parts
of flower. Placentation, major types of inflorescence.
- Unit 10 Fruit
Definition, major categories, edible parts of common
- Unit 11 Growth and Development
Definitions of growth and development, growth curve,
stages of plant growth, photoperiodism, vernalisation
hormonal regulation of growth, measurement of growth. Different types of plant movement and
responses; growth, turgor, hydration, tropic and nastic
Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Specimens
of fresh plants should be observed by a learner while
studying about its various parts. This should be
highlighted in the instuction material. Activities which
one can do at home should be given, for example :
observing osmosis in a carrot.
Suggested Extended Learning Read about
Hybrid Plants which give new varieties of flowers,
MODULE 4 : FUNCTIONAL
MORPHOLOGY AND LIFE
PROCESSES IN ANIMALS
Study Time : 35 hrs Marks : 11
The module brings out the relationship between the
structure and function in animals with special reference
to human so that the learner can appreciate the importance of intregration and co-ordination among
processes in the functioning organism as a whole.
Pre-requisite knowledge Elementary idea about
- Unit 1 Digestive System
Digestive organs, digestion, absorption, assimilation.
- Unit 2 Respiratory System
Respiratory organs, breathing, gaseous transport and
- Unit 3 Circulatory System
Circulatory organs, blood circulation, histology and
functions of blood, blood coagulation, blood
transfusion, blood groups, blood pressure, lymph and
lymph glands, spleen. Immune system (basic idea of
immunocytes and immunity).
- Unit 4 Excretory System
Excretory organs, finer structure of mammalian
kidney, ultrafiltration and urine formation, an
elementary idea of dialysis.
- Unit 5 Nervous System
Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system,
autonomous nervous system, sense organs, reflex
- Unit 6 Skin and skeletal System
(a) Skin: Basic structure and functions of skin.
(b) Skeletal System: All major bones in human
skeleton and their role in protection and/
or, movements, types of joints.
- Unit 7 Endocrine system (Chemical
Endocrine glands, nature and role of hormones, an
elementary knowledge of Pheromones.
- Unit 8 Reproductive System
Male and Female reproductive organs, histology of
gonads, fertilisation, artificial insemination, ovarian
cycle, fertility control, in vitro fertilisation and its prospects, Twins-monozygotic and dizygotic.
Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Read about
the concept organ transplant which is coming up as
growing area in the field of human physiology.
MODULE 5 : REPRODUCTION AND
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks :- 10
This module is designed to highlight the diverse
methods of reproduction in living beings from very
simple binary fission among unicellular organisms to
complex sexual reproduction in plants and animals.
It deals with both normal and abnormal development.
Pre-requisite knowledge An elementary
understanding of the organs of reproduction in plants
- Unit 1 Reproduction in non-flowering plants
Reproduction patterns in Escherichia coli,
chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria,
- Unit 2 Reproduction in flowering plants
Juvenility, flowering, flower as a reproductive organ,
flower formation and sex expression, pollen and
ovule, pollination, fertilization, seed development, fruit development, pathenocarpy.
- Unit 3 Vegetative reproduction in plants
Bulb, tuber, rhizome, bulbil, runner, sucker, etc.
Special method culture (micropropagation).
- Unit 4 Patterns of reproduction in animals
Asexual reproduction by fission, fragmentation and
budding. Sexual (gametic) reproduction.
- Unit 5 Basic features of embryonic
development in animals
Gametogenesis, sperm and egg, general principles
of fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation
organogenesis, morphogenesis and differentiation.
- Unit 6 Embryonic nutrition in birds and
Structure of hen's egg, role of albumen, yolk and the
extra embryonic membranes (amnion and allantois).
Implantation and placenta in humans.
- Unit 7 Some special aspects in Developmental
Growth and regeneration, cancer, ageing (senescene).
SuggestedTeaching/Learning Hints Environmental
influence on the embryo should be discussed while explaining embryonic development in order to
highlight that a pregnant woman can help ensure the
well being of the developing foetus.
Suggested Extended Learning : Read about
articles on artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization
and other such areas in magazines and newspapers.
MODULE 6: HEREDITY AND GENETICS
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks : 10
This module describes the principles and mechanisms
of heredity in determining the characteristics of
organisms. It highlights the interaction of genetics and environment in the processes involved in the
development of organisms, with special reference to
humans. It also deals with Variation which is the result
of genetic and/or environmental factors.
Pre-requisite knowledge Basic understanding of
the cell structure and cell division.
- Unit 1 Principles of Inheritance
Mendel's Law of Inheritance.
Linkage and crossing-over, criss-cross inheritance.
- Unit 2 Gene expression and Interaction
One gene one enzyme hypothesis, Incomplete
dominance, lethal genes, pleiotropic genes, Polygenic
inheritance with example of skin colour in man.
- Unit 3 Physical and Chemical basis of Heredity
Basic structure of DNA and RNA, nucleotides and
nucleosides, Functions of nucleic acids, replication
of DNA, transcription and translation.
- Unit 4 Mutation
Definition of mutation, Mutagens-physical and
chemical and their effects, Useful and harmful effects
- Unit 5 Human Genetics
Problems and modern approach to human genetics,
human karyotypes, Autosomal and sex chromosomal
Abnormalities due to multiple sets of genomes.
Colour blindness haemophilia disorders due to
incompatibility of genes.
Rh-factor, ABO blood groups, Amniocentesis.
- Unit 6 Genetics and Society
Improvement of plants and animals by selective
breeding, gene pool, genetic counselling, genetic
engineering and its importance, somatic hybridization
Suggested Teaching/Learning Hints Distinction
between DNA and varieties of RNA should be
Social and ethical problems raised by artificial
mutagens may be considered.
Suggested Extended Learning Read about
'Genetic drift' with changes in gene frequency by some
Read about the contributions of the Nobel Prize
winner Hargobind singh Khurana.
MODULE 7 : POPULATION EXPLOSION
AND FAMILY PLANNING
Study Time : 10 hrs Marks : 4
This module is designed to bring out the fact of the
increase in human population all over the world
through the prehistoric and historic times. It aims in
providing awareness of the causes and dangers of
population explosion in the more recent times. Also
it provides adequate information about the methods
of family planning and birth control and to remove
misconceptions about human birth.
- Unit 1 Concept and Definitions
Definitions of population, birth rate, death rate,
- Unit 2 Trends
Trends in world population and Indian population.
- Unit 3 Reasons
Reasons for increased rate of population rise in India
- Unit 4 Consequences of overpopulation
- Unit 5 Control of Population growth
Importance, need for educating both male and famale
adolescents, Higher age of marriage, need for use of
contraception during the reproductive age.
- Unit 6 Methods of Contraception
Reversible Spacing, Natural, Barrier, Hormonal
(Pills and implants,) Devices, Devices plus Hormonal.
Irreversible Tubectomy, Vasectomy, No-scalpel
Vasectomy. Possibility of making reversible
Suggestion Extended/Learning Hints Find out
about the methods and techniques adopted by a
demographer in the population studies.
MODULE 8 : ENVIRONMENTAL
Study Time : 15 hrs Marks : 8
This module emphasises the basic understanding of
rules governing the interrelationships in a biotic community. It brings out the basic principle of
conservation by pointing out that conservation of
natural resources would brighten the prospect of
future of mankind. The quality of human life should
be improved without disturbing the natural
- Unit 1 Ecological Principles
The biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem,
dependence of plants and animals on their
environment, inter-dependence of plants and animals;
flow of energy through the biosphere, food chains
and food webs, preservation of representative natural
ecosystem. Man's place in environment (a general
- Unit 2 Spatial Distribution of plants and
General characteristics of the climate and
the flora and fauna of the different biomes.
- Unit 3 Conservation and use of Natural
(a) Non-Renewable Resources: Primary
energy resources and their
consumption fossil fuels, minerals.
(b) Renewable Resources-water, wood,
Conservation of Soil and Water Causes and
methods of prevention of soil erosion, fertilizers and manures.
Water management and irrigation.
Conservation of Wild Life Forest and their
conservation, endangered species, National parks in
Agencies dealing with conservation and wild life
Non conventional sources of Energy Hydropower,
wind energy, nuclear power, solar energy, biogas,
- Unit 4 Pollution
Causes, prevention and remedy of different kinds of
pollution-air, water, soil, thermal and noise.
- Unit 5 Radiation in relation to human life Kinds of radiation, harmful effects of non-ionising
(ultraviolet) and ionising (X-rays, gamma rays and
p-particles) radiations, their short term and long term
effects, nuclear fall out, strontium-90 and its harmful
Suggested Extended/Learning Hints Collect
information about the recent legislation pertaining to
conservation of natural resources from newspaper
1. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN
BIOLOGY INCLUDING LABORATORY
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks : 14
This module is designed to enable the learner to
familiarise herself/himself with the common laboratory
techniques that may help him/her to maintain and look after a biological laboratory from the point of view
of teaching as well as research. It includes
maintenance of laboratory equipment and precautions
necessaryto be observed while working in a
- Unit 1 Short history of invention of simple and
- Unit 2 Basic principle of electron microscope, phase
contrast microscope, cytochemistry, autoradiography,
paper chromatography, tissue culture, centrifugation.
The historical resume to bring out the origin and
growth of biology should be discussed briefly.
- Unit 3 General laboratory equipments :-
Thermostats, pH meter, autoclave, calorimeter,
distillation units, centrifuge, weighing balance,
microtomes, blood pressure instrument, Kymograph.
- Unit 4 Preparation of common stains and
Types of stains and reagents, materials required, steps
- Unit 5 Maintenance of Botanical garden and
Zoological museum aquarium, Herbarium and Green
- Unit 6 Some techniques
Collection and Methods of culturing organisms for
class work, Laboratory care of animals.
Suggested Extended Learning :- Maintenance of
laboratory equipments should be discussed.
Precautions that are necessary to be observed while
working in a laboratory should also be stressed.
2. ECONOMY BIOLOGY
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks : 14
This module highlights human dependence on
agriculture to provide cereals, pulses, beverages,
fruits and vegetables for food, fibres of different kinds
for clothing and medicine to treat different diseases.
The importance of forests and different products
obtained from forest plants is also highlighted. Some
of the common principles and practices in raising and
rearing a variety of animals for their commercial
products such as milk, fishes, pearls, silk, lac etc.
are discussed. The concept of using vermiculture as
a means of biodegradation leading to production of
good manure is described.
- Unit 1 Agriculture :
Human dependence on
agriculture:- Different kinds of Crops; cereals, oil
seeds, sugarcane, fibres (cotton, flax, jute, leaf fibres
coconut fibres,) cotton and jute, vegetables pulses
and fruits-Green revolution, farm management
including irrigation, storage, marketing of the product
Beverages :- Sources, processing and nutritional
value of coffee, tea, coco, soya milk.
- Unit 2 Mushroom culture, Floriculture and
Hydroponics:- Brief information about each of
- Unit 3 Medicinal Plants Concept of general value
of - Amla, Mahua Cinchona, Atropa belladona, Pinus, Pterocarpus, Opium, Datura, Ocimum,
Eucalyptus, Rauvolfia, Neem.
- Unit 4 Forest Wealth Importance of forest,
different products-paper, plywood, rubbergums,
- Unit 5 Animal Husbandry General principles of
raising and caring of animals useful for human, proper
management for their products like milk, butter, ghee, meat, hides, wool, leather. Poultry farming.
- Unit 6 Fisheries An elementary idea of fresh water
and marine fisheries. Different kinds of common
edible fish-their rearing and breeding. Pearl fisheries.
- Unit 7 Apiculture and Lac Culture General
acquaintance with bee keeping and honey extraction,
uses of honey and wax. An elementary idea of lac
insect and lac production.
- Unit 8 Sericulture and Vermiculture:- A general
idea about sericulture, different kinds of silk moths,
their rearing and silk reeling. Types of silks. Idea of
rearing of economically useful worms like earthworm.
3. HEALTH SCIENCES
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks : 14
This module aims at creating awareness regarding
the need of proper hygiene for maintenance of
individual health. It also imparts knowledge regarding
the need for a healthy social environment around a
person. The role of proper and balanced nutrition to
prevent nutritional deficiency diseases is also
highlighted. Thetypes, causes and modes of
transmission of human diseases, the common
symptoms, prevention and methods of control of
some common communicable diseases are discussed.
Non-Communicable diseases and their causes are
also highlighted. It also attempts to create awareness
about the symptoms and prevention of sexuallytransmitted
- Unit 1 Concept of Health and Hygiene
Definiation and meaning of health, need for good
health/concept of ill health, concept and importance
of hygiene for maintenance of good health.
- Unit 2 Nutrition and Health Nutrition, macro and
micro nutrients, sources of nutrients need for
balanced diet, calorific needs of persons in various
occupations; nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
- Unit 3 Nutriotional disorders Kwashiorkor,
Marasmus, disorders due to mineral deficiency
namely iron, iodine and calcium; disorders due to
vitamin deficiency;overeating-obesity; risk of intake
of overdoses of iron and vitamin.
- Unit 4 Dangers of Drug Addiction Harmful
effects of addictive drugs and beverages;
rehabilitation of a drug addict.
- Unit 5 Hygiene Types of hygiene - personal,
domestic, community with emphasis on social
nuisances like spitting, nose-picking, urination,
defaecation, throwing garbage and other common
- Unit 6 Disease Disease, its definition, types,
transmission of disease, parasite, pathogen, infection,
infestation, vector, carrier, host.
- Unit 7 Communicable Disease Categories,
communicable diseases with examples; causes and
common symptoms prevention and control of some
common communicable diseases-Chicken pox,
Measles, Polimyelitis, Hepatitis, Rabies, Bacterial
Dysentery, Diphtheria, Cholera, Tuberculosis,
Leprosy, Malaria, Typhoid, Amoebiasis, Filariasis,
Transmission of disease (e.g. German Measles)
- Unit 8 Non-Communicable disease Heart
disease, Hypertension, Diabetes, Arthritis,
Osteoporosis, Cancer and Allergy.
- Unit 9 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis,
Gonorrhoea, AIDS - awareness, symptoms and
4. EMMERGING AREAS IN BIOLOGY -
Study Time : 30 hrs Marks : 14
PART A Biochemistry
This module is intended to make the learner
understand that all living beings are the outcome of
chemical activities. It describes the nature of various
biologically important molecules such as water,
amino acids as well as the structure and function of
the macromolecules such as the proteins, lipids and
- Unit 1 Introduction to Biochemistry:- Elements
found in living organisms.
- Unit 2 Simple biologically important Molecules water, amino acids, sugars, (pentoses and hexoses),
fatty acids, aromatic bases.
- Unit 3 Macromolecules Structure and function
of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
Conjugated proteins (e.g. glycoprotein,
- Unit 4 Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins
and lipids Regulation of metabolism
- Unit 5 Translation and Transcription
PART B : Biotechnology
Biotechnology is emerging as an exciting endeavour of human technological excellence in Biology. This
module provides ideas about the manipulation of
genetic makeup (genetic engineering) in order to
harvest important biological products, useful
transgenic organisms and normal genes for gene
- Unit 1 Uses of biological processes in
industry Use of fermenting yeast to produce alcohol
used as beverages and in industry, yoghurt
production, use of micro- organisms in production of
- Unit 2 General idea of Genetic Engineering Manipulation of genetic make-up to produce cheaply
and on a large scale proteins and hormones (insulin,
blood serum, proteins etc.) and other products of
commercial and medical importance.
- Unit 3 General idea of Transgenic Organisms Basic concept of transgenic organisms, Transgenic
animals (with one example ), Importance of
- Unit 4 Biogas Production Use of microbes in
- Unit 5 Gene therapy in humans:- Insertion of
good genes into humans to counteract harmful
mutation and treat disorder such as diabetes, sicklecell
PART C : Immunobiology
Immunobiology is a fast growing field in Biology. The
humans are constantly faceing various kinds of
infections. Such infections most often are
counteracted and not allow to flourished inside the
body by an efficient immune system. Whenever the
immmune system for one reason or the other reason
get weakened then the particular disease appear. In
this way the importance of immune system is being
realised. In this module you will be able to gain an
insight into this immune system and learn about its
- Unit 1 Introduction Types of defence
mechanisms in the body
(i) Skin, mucous membrane of eyes, nose etc.
(ii) Immune system.
- Unit 2 Tissues and organs involved in the
immune system Cell types involved (T cells, B
- Unit 3 Definition of antigen, antibody General
account of humoral and cell mediated immune
- Unit 4 Types of immunity:-
--Acquired : active and passive
- Unit 5 Active Immunization (vaccines):- List of
vaccines available against diseases.
- Unit 6 Effect of HIV on immune system.
- Unit 7 Definition of Allergens
The purpose of teaching biology is not only to acquaint
the learners with biological terms, facts, concepts and
principles but also to develop practical skills. Development of practical skills leads to better
understanding through first hand experience and
mutual reinforcement. It takes into account the
development of psychomotor skills. Since this is an
important aspect of development, the present biology
course considers practical work as an integral part
of the theory.
The skills which the present course intends to develop
(i) observational skills in the form of identifying
relevant details in given specimens, locating
the desired parts in a dissection or
(ii) manipulative skills in the form of arranging,
handling and reading apparatus and
(iii) dissectional skills.
(iv) collecting, mounting and preserving skills.
(v) drawing, labelling and reporting
experimental results and thereby
List of Practicals
A) For Core Modules
- 1. Preparing stained glycerine mounts of
i) Epidermal peel of onion, squamous
epithelium of frog, squash preparations of
root tip of onion to show mitotic stages.
ii) Collenchyma, sclerenchyma, parenchyma
from transverse sections of petiole
iii) Xylem and phloem from a cucurbit stem
by cutting transverse section
iv) Striated and non-striated muscle
- 2. Demonstration of the structure of root, stem,
leaf (of both dicot and monocot) with the help
of prepared slides.
- 3. Study of cartilage, bone (mammalian long bone),
blood (frog and man) and sections of liver,
kidney, testis, ovary and skin of mammal (from
- 4. To perform experiments to demonstrate and/
i) Osmosis in potato/carrot
ii) Plasmolysis in Rhoeo/Tradescantia leaf
iii) Stomatal count and its correlation with
transpiration from the two surfaces in a
bifacial leaf using cobalt chloride paper.
iv) Rate of photosynthesis in Hydrilla (or any
other aquatic plant) in normal, green and
red lights (by counting the number of
bubbles liberated per minute).
v) Evolution of CO2 during germination of
vi) Action of salivary amylase on starch;
vii) Chemical test of abnormalities in urine
(sugar and albumin)
- 5. Examination of prepared slides/specimens to
study the life history of the following
i) Chalmydomonas (vegetative)
ii) Spirogyra (vegetative and conjugation)
iii) Mucor/Rhizopus (all stages)
iv) Moss (Funaria) Gametophyte and
v) Fern (Pteris/Dryopteris)-Prothallus,
vi) Pinus-Long and Dwarf Shoots, Male and
Female Cones, Slide of Pollen Grains.
vii) Flowering plant-study of floral parts of
China Rose/Holly Hock and petunia, their
floral formulae and floral diagram.
- 6. Identification with distinguishing features and
classification upto classes, of the following:-
Paramecium, Sponge, Hydra, Tapeworm,
Liverfluke, Leech, Butterfly/Moth, Housefly,
Scorpion, Pila, Starfish, Dogfish, Rohu, Toad,
Wall-Lizard, Snake, Pigeon, Bat.
- 7. Identification of life history stages of silk moth.
- 8. Identification of frog-egg, cleavage, blastula,
gastrula, neurula (whole mount or section from
prepared slides), tadpole.
- 9. Demonstration of live sperm from rat.
- 10. Dissection/Demonstration of the general viscera
of rat to expose and flag label the following
Stomach, appendix, liver, spleen, pancreas,
diaphragm, heart, dorsal aorta, kidney, adrenals,
There will be a practical examination of 3 hours
duration and Maximum marks 20, apart from the
theoretical examination. The distribution of marks is
(i) Performing an experiment 4
(ii) Submitting a project 2
(iii) Identification of given samples
(4 samples) 3
(iv) Preparing mounts 3
(v) Maintenance of Record Book 3
(vi) Viva Voce 5
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