(Study Material) Salt Analysis of Cations and Anions (Chemistry)


Salt Analysis


Group Group Reagent Radicals
Zero Group O.S. + NaOH + Heat NH4+
I Group O.S. + HCl Pb2+
II Group O.S. + HCI + H2S Cu2+
III Group O.S. +NH4Cl + NH4OH AI2+ ,Fe3+
IV Group O.S. + NH4CI + NH4OH +H2S
Ni2+ ,Mn2+ , Zn2+ ,Co2+
V Group O.S. + NH4CI + NH4OH +(NH4)2CO3 Ba2+, Ca3+, Sr2+
VI Group O.S  + NH4CI + NH4OH + NaH2PO4 Mg2+


Group Group Reagent Radicals
I Group Salt + dil. H2SO4 CO32-, SO32-, S2-, NO2-
II Group Salt + conc. H2SO4 Cl-, Br-, I-, CH3COO-


Add Cu piece and heat NO-


Add KMnO4 soln. c2o42-
III Group O.S. + BaC!2 so42-
IV Group O.S + Conc.HNO3 + Heat + (NH4)24 MoO PO43-


Preliminary Tests

Test Observation Inference
Physical Appearance    
Colour White NH4+,  Pb2+, Al3+ , Zn2+, Ba2+, Ca2+ , Sr2+ and Mg2+
  Blue Cu2+
  Green Ni2+
  Brown Fe3+
  Red Co2+
  Light pink Mn2+
Odour Smell of NH3 NH4+
  Smell of vinegar CH3COO-
  Smell of rotten eggs H2-
Dry Heating Colourless gas evolved CO32- , SO32-,  S2- and Cl-
  Blown gas evolved Br-, NO3-
  Violet gas evolved I-
  Crackling sound Pb(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2
  Brown residue Cu2+
Flame Test Greenish blue Cu2+
  Light green Ba2+
  Brick red Ca2+
  Crimson red Sr2+

Know more about: Simultaneous Cation and Anion Analysis with Charged Aerosol Detection