Principles Of Management
What is GANG-PLANK? Show it through
a diagram – 3 marks
Gang-plank is the technique of shortening
the route of communication which is usually followed through all channel of
hierarchy. Fayol suggested that in case of urgencies, by jumping the
prescribed line of authority, these officials could deal with one another at
one sitting and sort out several problems quickly.
How can Fayol’s PRINCIPLES OF
EQUITY and order be applied in work situation?-4 marks. Illustrate with an
example. (CBSE-1996, CBSE-2001)
Which principle of management aims
at securing the loyalty and devotion of the employees by giving them kind, fair
and just treatment? Explain this principle with a suitable example -4 marks
The principle of equity suggest
that similar treatment is assured to people performing similar jobs. Example
– two typists should be paid the same wage rate.
An effective management is always kind, fair and just in
its dealing with its subordinates. This way it earns the respect, loyalty
and devotion of the employees and they are motivated to put in their best
However the principle of equity should be applied at all
levels. Workers should be treated at par at every level.
For example: There should be no discrimination with
regards to position, sex, age etc while granting medical leave to the
Name the function of management,
which concentrates on employing and retaining the right person at the right
place. Explain why this function is important in any organisation.
If an organisation does not provide
the right place for physical and human resources in the organisation.,
which principle is violated? What are the consequences of it?
Principle of ORDER:
If an organisation does not provide the
right place for physical and human resources in the organisation, the
PRINCIPLE OF ORDER is violated.
The principle of order is concerned with
proper arrangement of things and people. This principle can be divided into
Material order: An
orderly arrangement of things is called material order. There should be an
orderly arrangement of physical factors of production like land, raw
material, tools and equipment. This means that there should be a specific
place for everything. Every piece of land and every article should be used
properly, economically and in the best possible way.
Social order: An
orderly arrangement of people is called social order. This includes
employees. Right man for the right job will ensure effective use of man
power resources. Right place for everything and for everyone should
therefore be the guiding principle for every management.
Adverse Effect: When
there is no arrangement for things and people, the organisation will not be
able to achieve its objectives in time. Effective utilisation of physical and
human resources will not be possible.
Explain the principle of
“INITIATIVE” through a suitable example - 3 marks (CBSE-2000)
Freedom to think and execute a plan is known as
Employees at all level should be allowed to take
initiative in work related matters.
Encouraging initiative is likely to motivate employees to
work better and harder.
However initiative should not be confused with disrespect
to authority. For example: if any employee is given the initiative to make
suggestions but once the decision is taken on any issue then there is no
scope for disobedience.
Fayol points out the danger and
costs of unnecessary labour turnover in one of his principles. Name and explain
the principle.(CBSE-2000) (2004)
Illustrate the principle of
“STABILITY OF TENURE” through a suitable example – 3 marks
Fayol emphasised in his principle
“STABILITY OF TENURE” that employees should not be shifted from their
position frequently. The period of service should be fixed. It takes time for
an employee to get used to his work and he cannot render useful service if he
is removed before he gets accustomed to the work assigned to him.
Production requires team-work. If the members of the
team go on changing the entire production process will be disturbed.
An effective management will ensure that trusted,
trained and experienced personnel do not leave the organisation, unless it
is unavoidable such as illness, retirement or death of an employee.
Stability of job creates a sense of belonging among the
workers and so they are motivated to improve the quantity and quality of
•Adverse Effect: If principle of stability of tenure is
violated, it will lead to high labour turnover rate and will increase the
cost of selection and training of the employees.
Define Scientific Management? –
According to F.W.Taylor who is regarded as the father of
scientific management, “Scientific Management is the art of knowing
exactly what you want your men to do and seeing that they do it in the
It means conducting business activities according to
standardised tools, methods and trained personnel in order to increase the
output, improve its quality and reduce cost and wastage.
Explain any two principles of
Describe in brief TAYLOR’S
PRINCIPLES of (i) science not rule of the thumb and (ii) separation of planning
and operational work - 4 marks. (any two out of 5 taylor’s
principles will be asked- 4 marks) Important
Science not rule of thumb –
In traditional management “rule of thumb” was
prevailing. This was also known as “Trial and errors method “ or “Hit
or miss method”
This principle meant that go on trying, failing and
wasting the resources and finally perfecting the job.
Workers were careless because no specific amount of work
was expected from them. Even the employer did not know the real worth of his
employee. Everything was left to ”Trial and Errors” method.
Taylor introduced the scientific method in which he
emphasized that “Rule of the thumb” does NOT involve thinking before
doing and that each job in the organisation should NOT be performed based on
intuition, experience and hit and miss methods.
According to scientific method the causes, effects and
exact measures of effort and output should be kept in view for any work to
be performed. This forms the core of scientific management.
Separation of planning and
operational work: - 2 marks
According to Taylor, planning operations should be
separated from operational operations.
He stressed that managers should concentrate on planning
the job of the workers while workers’ potential should be developed to the
fullest extent for their own benefit as well as the prosperity of the
For this purpose there has to be a scientific selection
of workers and they should be trained to adopt new methods of work.
Harmony not discord -2
According to Taylor those who work together should work
in harmony i.e. there should be mutual give and take and proper
understanding among the managers and workers. This is because group efforts
contribute more than an individual’s efforts.
Managers should adopt an enlightened attitude and share
the productive gains with the workers and workers on their part should work
with discipline and loyalty.
Maximum not restricted output –
Continuous productivity is one of the principles of
According to this principle, production should not be
curtailed and management and labour should both be interested in increasing
Conflict between management and labour arises mainly on
division of surplus. The best solution is to increase the size of the
surplus so that both can have a larger share.
Cooperation not individualism: -
Scientific management works on cooperation between
workers and management and among workers themselves.
Management can earn higher profits if workers produce
better quality, low cost goods.
Workers can earn higher wages if management provides
standard materials, standard tools, standard working conditions and training
in standard methods.
Explain “method study” as a
technique of Scientific Management? –2 marks (CBSE-2004)
Method study is concerned with methods of performing a
There are various methods to perform the same job with
different costs requirements. Taylor suggested that management should find
out one best way to perform the task.
For example – The methods of manufacturing
shoes may be manual or mechanical but the cost of labour and capital to
manufacture shoes according to each method may vary. Management has to
decide which method to use before it starts manufacturing.
The objective of method study is to minimise production
costs by a proper mixture of factors of production in order to achieve
Method study should be done right at the planning stage
of the job.
What role do” motion studies”
play in setting the standard task? – 2 marks
Motion study is the technique that closely observes the
movement of the body/machines required to perform a job so that unnecessary
movements can be eliminated and the best way of doing a job is determined.
Upon a close examination of
body’s wasteful motions it is possible to find
Through motion study Taylor was able to design suitable
tools & equipment and educate workers on their use.
Define “fatigue study” on the
basis of meaning and purpose? – 2 marks
Fatigue study helps in setting the time interval and
frequency of rest period in completing a task.
A person will be tired and less productive if he works
without rest interval for a long period of time. If he is allowed rest
intervals he will regain stamina and work with increased efficiency.
What is the role of “time study”
in setting the standard task or help to improve the efficiency of workers.? Give
two points in support of your answer? – 2 marks
Time study measures the standard time taken for a
qualified worker to perform a well -defined job.
Time study is done with the help of a time measuring
time study is to:
It helps to determine the fair days work of an
It creates time consciousness in a worker
It eliminates idle time
It helps in reducing costs
Distinguish between Time Study and
Motion Study – 3 marks (Pre Semester 2003)
It measures the standard time taken for a
qualified worker to perform a well defined job.
It studies movements of body/machine to perform a
The purpose is to decide how much time is
normally required to perform a certain job
The purpose is to avoid wasteful motions and to
determine the best way of doing a job
It measures the work provides a yardstick to
decide between efficient and inefficient workers
It eliminates and reduces wasteful and useless
What is “ Mental Revolution” – 2 marks.
According to Taylor, mental revolution means that both
workers and management should completely change their attitude regarding
relation between themselves and their work.
Management and workers usually suspect each other and try
to trick each other.
Workers all the time feel that management exploits them
by extracting a lot of work from them and paying meagre wages. Management on
the other hand feels that workers always grumble about the workload and
deliberately slow down their work, damage equipments, tools and show
indifference to quality of products.
Mental revolution requires that such a feeling of
suspicion or prejudice should be rooted out.
Management should provide good working conditions and
resolves all problems scientifically. Similarly workers on their part should
work with discipline and loyalty.
Instead of fighting for dividing the surplus profit,
management and workers should cooperate to increase it.
Do you agree with the view that
Taylor’s principles of scientific management and Faylor’s principles of
management are mutually complementary. Give any 4 reasons. (3-4 marks)
List 4 distinctions between
Fayol’s contribution and Taylor’s theory (Important) 3-4
Yes, they are mutually complementary since
no organization can function effectively without mutual cooperation of
managers and employees.
The comparative evaluation of their
contributions is given below. (FEES)
Taylor’s principles were more applicable at shop
level with emphasis on tasks of workers and supervisors.
Fayol’s principles were more applicable at general
management level with emphasis on efficiency of managers and
Taylor wanted to improve the efficiency of lowest level
and then move upwards while formulating the principles of scientific
Fayol began from the top level
and moved downwards with emphasis on “unity of direction, command and
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