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(Syllabus) CBSE Class 9th & 10th : Social Science (Code No. : 087)

CBSE
CBSE Board Syllabus (2011)
Class : 9th & 10th
Social Science (Code No. : 087)

RATIONALE :

Social Science is a compulsory subject upto secondary stage of school education. It is an integral component of general education because it helps the learners in understanding the environment in its totality and developing a broader perspective and an empirical, reasonable and humane outlook. This is of crucial importance because it helps them grow into well-informed and responsible citizens with necessary attributes and skills for being able to participate and contribute effectively in the process of development and nation-building.

The social science curriculum draws its content mainly from geography, history, political science and economics. Some elements of sociology and commerce are also included. Together they provide a comprehensive view of society-over space and time, and in relation to each other. Each subject’s distinct methods of enquiry help the learners understand society from different angles and form a holistic view.

OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of this syllabus are :
to develop an understanding of the processes of change and development-both in terms of time and space, through which human societies have evolved.
to make learners realise that the process of change is continuous and any event or phenomenon or issue cannot be viewed in isolation but in a wider context of time and space.
to develop an understanding of contemporary India with its historical perspective, of the basic framework of the goals and policies of national development in independent India, and of the process of change with appropriate connections to world development.
to deepen knowledge about and understanding of India’s freedom struggle and of the values and ideals that it represented, and to develop an appreciation of the contributions made by people of all sections and regions of the country.
to help learners understand and cherish the values enshrined in the Indian Constitution and to prepare them for their roles and responsibilities as effective citizens of a democratic society.
to deepen the knowledge and understanding of India’s environment in its totality, their interactive processes and effects on the future quality of people’s lives
to facilitate the learners to understand and appreciate the diversity in the land and people of the country with its underlying unity.
to develop an appreciation of the richness and variety of India’s heritage-both natural and cultural and the need for its preservation.
to promote an understanding of the issues and challenges of contemporary India-environmental, economic and social, as part of the development process.
to help pupils acquire knowledge, skills and understanding to face the challenges of contemporary society as individuals and groups and learn the art of living a confident and stress-free life as well as participating effectively in the community
to develop scientific temper by promoting the spirit of enquiry and following a rational and objective approach in analysing and evaluating data and information as well as views and interpretations
to develop academic and social skills such as critical thinking, communicating effectively both in visual and verbal forms- cooperating with others, taking initiatives and providing leadership in solving others’ problems
to develop qualities clustered around the personal, social, moral, national and spiritual values that make a person humane and socially effective.

Class IX

Unit 1 : India and the Contemporary World – I 40 Periods

Themes Objectives
Any two themes from each of the first two sub-units and one from the third could be studied.

Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes.
In this unit the focus is on three events and
processes that have in major ways shaped the identity of the modern world. Each represents a different form of politics, and a specific combination of forces. One event is linked to the growth of liberalism and democracy, one with socialism, and one with a negation of both democracy and socialism.

1. French revolution :
(a) The Ancient Regime and its crises. (b) The
social forces that led to the revolution. (c)
The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time. (d) The legacy.

2. Russian Revolution.
(a) The crises of Tzarism. (b) The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917. (c) The First World War and foundation of Soviet state. (d) The legacy.

3. Rise of Nazism.
(a) The growth of social democracy (b) The crises in Germany. (b) The basis of Hitler’s rise to power. (c) The ideology of Nazism. (d) The impact of Nazism.
Sub-unit 1.2 : Economies and Livelihoods
The themes in this section will focus on how
different social groups grapple with the changes in the contemporary world and how these changes affect their lives.

4. Pastoralists in the modern world.
(a) Pastoralism as a way of life. (b) Different
forms of pastoralism. (c) What happens
to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states?
Case studies : focus on two pastoral groups, one from Africa and one from India.

5. Forest society and colonialism :
(a) Relationship between forests and
livelihoods. (b) Changes in forest societies
under colonialism.
Case studies : focus on two forest movements one in colonial India (Bastar) and one in Indonesia.

6. Farmers and peasants :
(a) Histories of the emergence of different
forms of farming and peasant societies. (b)
Changes within rural economies in the modern world.

Case studies : focus on contrasting forms of rural change and different forms of rural societies (expansion of large-scale wheat and cotton farming in USA, rural economy and the Agricultural Revolution in England, and small peasant production in colonial India)

Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society
The themes in this unit will consider how issues
of culture are linked up to the making of
contemporary world.

7. Sports and politics :
The story of cricket (a) The emergence of cricket
as an English sport. (b) Cricket and colonialism.
(c) Cricket nationalism and de-colonialization.
8. Clothes and cultures. (a) A short history of
changes in clothing. (b) Debates over clothing in
colonial India. (c) Swadeshi and the movement
for Khadi.

Sub-unit 1.4 : Map Work. (2 Marks).

In each of the themes in this unit students would
be made familiar with extracts of speeches, political declarations, as well as the politics of caricatures, posters and engravings. Students would learn how to interpret these kinds of historical evidences.

Familiarize students with the names of people
involved, the different types of ideas that inspired
the revolution, the wider forces that shaped it.

Show how written, oral and visual material can
be used to recover the history of revolutions.

Explore the history of socialism through a study
of the Russian revolution.

Familiarize students with the names of people
involved, the different types of ideas that inspired
the revolution.

Discuss the critical significance of Nazism in
shaping the politics of modern world.

Familiarize students with the speeches and
writings of Nazi leaders.

Consider what happens to pastoralists and pastoralism in the modern world, with the formation of modern states, marking of boundaries, processes of sedentarization, contraction of pastures, and expansion of markets.

Point to the varying patterns of developments
within pastoral societies in different places.

Look at the impact of colonialism on forest
societies, and the implication of scientific forestry.

Discuss the social and cultural world of forest
communities through the study of specific revolts.

Understand how oral traditions can be used to
explore tribal revolts.

Show the different processes through which
agrarian transformation may occur in the modern
world.

Understand how agricultural systems in India are
different from that in other countries.

Familiarize students with the idea that large scale
farming, small scale production, shifting agriculture operate on different principles and have different histories.

Suggest how sports also have a history and that
it is linked up with the politics of power and
domination.

Introduce students to some of the stories in
cricket that have historical significance.

Show how clothing has a history, and how it is
linked to questions of cultural identity.

Discuss how clothing has been the focus of
intense social battles.

Unit 2 : India – Land and the People (45 Periods)

Themes Objectives
1. India : location, relief, structure, major
physiographic units.

2. Climate : factors influencing the climate;
monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and
temperature distribution; seasons; climate and
human life.

3. Drainage : major rivers and tributaries, lakes
and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution
of rivers, measures to control river pollution.

4. Natural Vegetation : vegetation types,
distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need
for conservation and various measures.

5. Wildlife : major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.

6. Population : size, distribution, age-sex
composition, population change-migration as a
determinant of population change, literacy,
health, occupational structure and national
population policy : adolescents as under-served
population group with special needs.

7. Map Work (4 marks).

To understand the major landform features and the
underlying geological structure; their association with various rocks and minerals as well as nature of soil types

To identify the various factors influencing the climate and explain the climatic variaton of our country and its impact on the life of the people.
Tor explain the importance and unifying role of
monsoons;

To understand the river systems of the country and
explain the role of rivers in the evolution of human
society.

To find out the nature of diverse flora and fauna as
well as their distribution;

To develop concern about the need to protect the
bio-diversity of our country;

To analyse the uneven nature of population
distribution and show concern about the large size of
our population;

To understand the various occupations of people and
explain various factors of population change;

To explain various dimension of national policy and
understand the needs of adolescents as underserved
group.

Project/Activity
Learners may identify songs, dances, festivals and special food preparations associated with certain seasons in their particular region, and whether they have some commonality with other regions of India. Collection of material by learners on the flora and fauna of the region in which their school is situated. It should include a list of endangered species of the region and also information regarding efforts being made to save them.
Posters
River pollution
Depletion of forests and ecological imbalance.

Unit – 3 : Democratic Politics I (40 Periods)

Themes Learning Objectives
1. What is democracy? Why democracy?
What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the
most prevalent form of government in our times?
What are the alternatives to democracy? Is
democracy superior to its available alternatives?
Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?

2. Designing of Democracy in India
How and why did India become a democracy?
How was the Indian constitution framed? What
are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?

3. Electoral politics in democracy
Why and how do we elect representatives? Why
do we have a system of competition among
political parties? How has the citizens’
participation in electoral politics changed? What
are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?

4. Institutions of parliamentary democracy
How is the country governed? What does
Parliament do in our democracy? What is the
role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?

5. Citizens’ rights in democracy
Why do we need rights in a constitution? What
are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the
citizen under the Indian constitution? How does
the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of
the citizen? How is the independence of the
judiciary ensured?

Develop conceptual skills of defining
democracy

Understand how different historical processes
and forces have promoted democracy.

Developing a sophisticated defence of
democracy against common prejudices

Develop a historical sense of the choice and
nature of democracy in India.
Introduction to the process of Constitution
making
Develop respect for the Constitution and
appreciation for Constitutional values
Recognise that constitution is a living document
that undergoes changes.
Introduce the idea of representative democracy
via competitive party politics
Familiarise with our electoral system and reasons
for choosing this
Develop an appreciation of citizen’s increased
participation in electoral politics
Recognise the significance of the Election
Commission
Provide an overview of central governmental
structures
Sensitise to the key role of the Parliament and
its procedures
Distinguish between nominal and real executive
authorities and functions
Understand the parliamentary system of
executive’s accountability to the legislature
Develop a citizens’ awareness of their rights
Introduction to and appreciation of the
Fundamental Rights
Recognition of the ways in which these rights
are exercised and denied in real life situations.
Introduction to judicial system and key
institutions like the Supreme Court, High Courts
and National Human Rights Commission.

Unit – 4 : Understanding Economic Development – I (40 Periods)

Themes Objectives
1. The economic story of Palampore: Economic
transactions of Palampore and its interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of production (land, labour and capital) can be
introduced.

2. People as Resource : Introduction of how
people become resource / asset; economic
activities done by men and women; unpaid work done by women; quality of human resource ; role of health and education; unemployment as a form of nonutilisation of human resource; sociopolitical implication in simple form

3. Poverty as a challenge facing India : Who is
poor (through two case studies: one rural one
urban); indicators; absolute poverty (not as a
concept but through a few simple examples) –
why people are poor ; unequal distribution of
resources; comparison between countries; steps taken by government for poverty alleviation

4. Food Security : Source of foodgrains- variety
across the nation – famines in the past – the need for self sufficiency – role of government in food security – procurement of foodgrains –
overflowing of granaries and people without food – public distribution system – role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies)

Familiarising the children with some basic
economic concepts through an imaginary story
of a village

Familiarisation of a few population related concepts
and sensitization of child that people as asset can
participate and contribute in nation building

Understanding of poverty as a challenge and
sensitization of the learner;

Appreciation of the government initiative to alleviate
poverty

Exposing the child to an economic issue which is basic
necessities of life;

Appreciate and critically look at the role of
government in ensuring food supply

Suggested Activities / Instructions :

Theme 1 : Give more examples of activities done by different workers and farmers.
Numerical problems can also be included.
Some of the ways through which description of villages are available in the writings of Prem Chand, MN Srinivas and RK Narayan. They may have to be referred.

Theme II : Discuss the impact of unemployment
Debate on whether all the activities done by women should be included or not. Is begging an economic activity? Discuss. Is it necessary to reduce population growth or family size? Discuss.

Theme IV : Visit a few farms in a village and collect the details of foodgrains cultivated; Visit a nearby ration shop and collect the details of goods available; Visit a regulated market yard and observe how goods are transacted and get the details of the places where the goods come and go.

Unit – 5 : Disaster Management 25 Periods

1. Man made disasters – Nuclear, Biological and Chemical.
2. Common Hazards – Prevention and Mitigation
3. Community Based Disaster Management.

PRESCRIBED TEXTBOOKS :
1. India and the Contemporary World History – Published by NCERT
2. Contemparary India – Geography – Published by NCERT
3. Democratic Politics – Published by NCERT
4. Economics – Published by NCERT
5. Together, Towards a Safer India – Part II, a textbook on Disaster Management for class IX – Published by CBSE

Class X

Unit 1 : India and the Contemporary world – II (45 Periods)

Themes Objectives
Any two themes from each of the first two sub-units and one from the third could be studied.
Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes.
In this unit the focus is on three events and
processes that have in major ways shaped the identity of the modern world. Each represents a different form of politics, and a specific combination of forces. One event is linked to the growth of liberalism and democracy, one with socialism, and one with a negation of both democracy and socialism.

1. French revolution :
(a) The Ancient Regime and its crises. (b) The
social forces that led to the revolution. (c)
The different revolutionary groups and
ideas of the time. (d) The legacy.

2. Russian Revolution.
(a) The crises of Tzarism. (b) The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917. (c) The First World War and foundation of Soviet state. (d) The legacy.

3. Rise of Nazism.
(a) The growth of social democracy (b) The
crises in Germany. (b) The basis of Hitler’s
rise to power. (c) The ideology of Nazism.
(d) The impact of Nazism.
Sub-unit 1.2 : Economies and Livelihoods
The themes in this section will focus on how
different social groups grapple with the changes in the contemporary world and how these changes affect their lives.

4. Pastoralists in the modern world.
(a) Pastoralism as a way of life. (b) Different
forms of pastoralism. (c) What happens
to pastoralism under colonialism and
modern states?
Case studies : focus on two pastoral
groups, one from Africa and one from
India.

5. Forest society and colonialism :
(a) Relationship between forests and
livelihoods. (b) Changes in forest societies
under colonialism.
Case studies : focus on two forest
movements one in colonial India (Bastar)
and one in Indonesia.

6. Farmers and peasants :
(a) Histories of the emergence of different
forms of farming and peasant societies. (b)
Changes within rural economies in the
modern world.
Case studies : focus on contrasting forms
of rural change and different forms of rural
societies (expansion of large-scale wheat
and cotton farming in USA, rural economy
and the Agricultural Revolution in England, and small peasant production in colonial India)

Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society
The themes in this unit will consider how issues
of culture are linked up to the making of
contemporary world.

7. Sports and politics :
The story of cricket (a) The emergence of cricket
as an English sport. (b) Cricket and colonialism.
(c) Cricket nationalism and de-colonialization.

8. Clothes and cultures. (a) A short history of
changes in clothing. (b) Debates over clothing in
colonial India. (c) Swadeshi and the movement
for Khadi.
Sub-unit 1.4 : Map Work. (2 Marks).

In each of the themes in this unit students would be made familiar with extracts of speeches,
political declarations, as well as the politics of
caricatures, posters and engravings. Students
would learn how to interpret these kinds of
historical evidences.

Familiarize students with the names of people
involved, the different types of ideas that inspired
the revolution, the wider forces that shaped it.

Show how written, oral and visual material can
be used to recover the history of revolutions.

Explore the history of socialism through a study
of the Russian revolution.

Familiarize students with the names of people
involved, the different types of ideas that inspired
the revolution.

Discuss the critical significance of Nazism in
shaping the politics of modern world.

Familiarize students with the speeches and
writings of Nazi leaders.

Consider what happens to pastoralists and
pastoralism in the modern world, with the
formation of modern states, marking of boundaries, processes of sedentarization, contraction of pastures, and expansion of markets.

Point to the varying patterns of developments
within pastoral societies in different places.

Look at the impact of colonialism on forest
societies, and the implication of scientific forestry.

Discuss the social and cultural world of forest
communities through the study of specific revolts.

Understand how oral traditions can be used to
explore tribal revolts.

Show the different processes through which
agrarian transformation may occur in the modern
world.

Understand how agricultural systems in India are
different from that in other countries.

Familiarize students with the idea that large scale farming, small scale production, shifting
agriculture operate on different principles and
have different histories.

Suggest how sports also have a history and that
it is linked up with the politics of power and
domination.

Introduce students to some of the stories in
cricket that have historical significance.

Show how clothing has a history, and how it is
linked to questions of cultural identity.

Discuss how clothing has been the focus of
intense social battles.

Unit 2 : India – Land and the People 45 Periods

Themes Objectives
1. India : location, relief, structure, major
physiographic units.

2. Climate : factors influencing the climate;
monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and
temperature distribution; seasons; climate and
human life.

3. Drainage : major rivers and tributaries, lakes
and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution
of rivers, measures to control river pollution.

4. Natural Vegetation : vegetation types,
distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need
for conservation and various measures.

5. Wildlife : major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.

6. Population : size, distribution, age-sex
composition, population change-migration as a
determinant of population change, literacy,
health, occupational structure and national
population policy : adolescents as under-served
population group with special needs.

7. Map Work (4 marks).

To understand the major landform features and the
underlying geological structure; their association with various rocks and minerals as well as nature of soil types

To identify the various factors influencing the climate and explain the climatic variaton of our country and its impact on the life of the people.

Tor explain the importance and unifying role of
monsoons;

To understand the river systems of the country and
explain the role of rivers in the evolution of human
society.

To find out the nature of diverse flora and fauna as
well as their distribution;

To develop concern about the need to protect the
bio-diversity of our country;

To analyse the uneven nature of population
distribution and show concern about the large size of our population;

To understand the various occupations of people and explain various factors of population change;

To explain various dimension of national policy and
understand the needs of adolescents as underserved group.

Project/Activity
Learners may identify songs, dances, festivals and special food preparations associated with certain seasons in their particular region, and whether they have some commonality with other regions of India.
Collection of material by learners on the flora and fauna of the region in which their school is situated. It should include a list of endangered species of the region and also information regarding efforts being made to save them.

Posters
River pollution
Depletion of forests and ecological imbalance.

Unit – 3 : Democratic Politics I 40 Periods

Themes Learning Objectives
1. What is democracy? Why democracy?
What are the different ways of defining
democracy? Why has democracy become the
most prevalent form of government in our times?
What are the alternatives to democracy? Is
democracy superior to its available alternatives?
Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?

2. Designing of Democracy in India
How and why did India become a democracy?
How was the Indian constitution framed? What
are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?

3. Electoral politics in democracy
Why and how do we elect representatives? Why
do we have a system of competition among
political parties? How has the citizens’
participation in electoral politics changed? What
are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?

4. Institutions of parliamentary democracy
How is the country governed? What does
Parliament do in our democracy? What is the
role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?

5. Citizens’ rights in democracy
Why do we need rights in a constitution? What
are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the
citizen under the Indian constitution? How does
the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of
the citizen? How is the independence of the
judiciary ensured?

Develop conceptual skills of defining
democracy

Understand how different historical processes
and forces have promoted democracy.

Developing a sophisticated defence of
democracy against common prejudices

Develop a historical sense of the choice and
nature of democracy in India.
Introduction to the process of Constitution
making
Develop respect for the Constitution and
appreciation for Constitutional values
Recognise that constitution is a living document that undergoes changes.
Introduce the idea of representative democracy via competitive party politics
Familiarise with our electoral system and reasons for choosing this
Develop an appreciation of citizen’s increased
participation in electoral politics
Recognise the significance of the Election
Commission
Provide an overview of central governmental
structures
Sensitise to the key role of the Parliament and
its procedures
Distinguish between nominal and real executive
authorities and functions
Understand the parliamentary system of
executive’s accountability to the legislature
Develop a citizens’ awareness of their rights
Introduction to and appreciation of the
Fundamental Rights
Recognition of the ways in which these rights
are exercised and denied in real life situations.
Introduction to judicial system and key
institutions like the Supreme Court, High Courts
and National Human Rights Commission.

Unit – 4 : Understanding Economic Development – I 40 Periods

Themes Objectives
1. The economic story of Palampore: Economic
transactions of Palampore and its interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of production (land, labour and capital) can be
introduced.

2. People as Resource : Introduction of how
people become resource / asset; economic
activities done by men and women; unpaid work
done by women; quality of human resource ;
role of health and education; unemployment as
a form of nonutilisation of human resource; sociopolitical implication in simple form

3. Poverty as a challenge facing India : Who is
poor (through two case studies: one rural one
urban); indicators; absolute poverty (not as a
concept but through a few simple examples) –
why people are poor ; unequal distribution of
resources; comparison between countries; steps
taken by government for poverty alleviation

4. Food Security : Source of foodgrains- variety
across the nation – famines in the past – the need for self sufficiency – role of government in food security – procurement of foodgrains –
overflowing of granaries and people without food – public distribution system – role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies)

Familiarising the children with some basic
economic concepts through an imaginary story
of a village

Familiarisation of a few population related concepts and sensitization of child that people as asset can participate and contribute in nation building

Understanding of poverty as a challenge and
sensitization of the learner;

Appreciation of the government initiative to alleviate poverty

Exposing the child to an economic issue which is basic necessities of life;

Appreciate and critically look at the role of
government in ensuring food supply

Suggested Activities / Instructions :
Theme 1 : Give more examples of activities done by different workers and farmers.
Numerical problems can also be included.
Some of the ways through which description of villages are available in the writings of Prem Chand, MN Srinivas and RK Narayan. They may have to be referred.

Theme II : Discuss the impact of unemployment
Debate on whether all the activities done by women should be included or not.
Is begging an economic activity? Discuss.
Is it necessary to reduce population growth or family size? Discuss.

Theme IV : Visit a few farms in a village and collect the details of foodgrains cultivated;
Visit a nearby ration shop and collect the details of goods available;
Visit a regulated market yard and observe how goods are transacted and get the details of the places where the goods come and go.

Unit – 5 : Disaster Management 25 Periods

1. Man made disasters – Nuclear, Biological and Chemical.
2. Common Hazards – Prevention and Mitigation
3. Community Based Disaster Management.

PRESCRIBED TEXTBOOKS :
1. India and the Contemporary World History – Published by NCERT
2. Contemparary India – Geography – Published by NCERT
3. Democratic Politics – Published by NCERT
4. Economics – Published by NCERT
5. Together, Towards a Safer India – Part II, a textbook on Disaster Management for class IX – Published by CBSE

Class X
Theory Paper 1

Unit 1 : India and the Contemporary world – II 45 Periods

Themes Objectives
In Sub-unit 1.1 students are required to choose any two themes. In that sub-unit, theme 3 is compulsory and for second theme students are required to choose any one from the first two themes.

In Sub Units 1.2 and 1.3 student are required to choose any one theme from each. Thus all students are required to study four themes in
all.

Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes :
1. Nationalism in Europe :
(a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after
the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe
Mazzini etc. (c) General characteristics of
the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy,
Germany and Greece.

2. Nationalist Movement in Indo China :
Factors leading to growth of rationalism in
India (a) French colonialism in Indochina. (b) Phases of struggle against the French. (c) The ideas of Phan Dinh Phung, Phan Boi Chau,
Nguyen Ac Quoc (d) The second world
war and the liberation struggle. (e) America
and the second Indochina war.

3. Nationalism in India : Civil Disobedience
Movement (a) First world war, Khilafat and
Non-Cooperation. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c)
Movements of peasants, workers, tribals. (d)
Activities of different political groups.

Sub-unit 1.2 : Economies and livelihoods :
4. Industrialization 1850s – 1950s : (a) Contrast
between the form of industrialization in Britain
and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts
and industrial production, formal and informal
sectors. (c) Livelihood of workers. Case studies
: Britain and India.

5. Urbanization and urban lives : (a) Patterns
of urbanization (b) Migration and the growth of
towns. (c) Social change and urban life. (d)
Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban
poor.
Case studies : London and Bombay in the
nineteenth and twentieth century.

6. Trade and Globalization : (a) Expansion and
integration of the world market in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. (b) Trade and economy between the two Wars. (c) Shifts after the 1950s. (d) Implications of globalization for livelihood patterns.
Case study : The post War International
Economic order, 1945 to 1960s.

Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society

7. Print culture and nationalism. (a) The history
of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in
nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship
between print culture, public debate and politics.

8. History of the novel: (a) Emergence of the
novel as a genre in the west. (b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society. (c) Early novels in nineteenth century India. (d) A study of two or three major writers.

Sub-unit 1.4 : Map Work (2 Marks)

The theme will discuss the forms in which
nationalism developed along with the formation
of nation states in Europe in the post-1830
period.

Discuss the relationship/difference between
European nationalism and anti-colonial
nationalisms.

Point to the way the idea of the nation states
became generalized in Europe and elsewhere.

Discuss the difference between French
colonialism in Indochina and British colonialism
in India.

Outline the different stages of the anti-imperialist struggle in Indochina.

Familiarize the students with the differences
between nationalist movements in Indo China
and India.

Discuss the characteristics of Indian nationalism
through a case study of Civil Disobedience
Movement.

Analyze the nature of the diverse social
movements of the time.

Familiarize students with the writings and ideals
of different political groups and individuals,
notably Mahatama Gandhi.

discuss two different patterns of industrialization, one in the imperial country and another within a colony.

Show the relationship between different sectors of production.

Show the difference between urbanization in two different contexts. A focus on Bombay and
London will allow the discussions on urbanization
and industrialization to complement each other.

Show that globalizaton has a long history and
point to the shifts within the process.

Analyze the implication of globalization for local
economies.

Discuss how globalization is experienced
differently by different social groups.

Discuss the link between print culture and the
circulation of ideas.

Familiarize students with pictures, cartoons,
extracts from propaganda literature and
newspaper debates on important events and
issues in the past.

Show that forms of writing have a specific history, and that they reflect historical changes within society and shape the forces of change.

Familiarize students with some of the ideas of
writers who have had a powerful impact on
society.

Unit 2 : India – Resources and their Development (45 Periods)

Themes Objectives
1. Resources : Types – natural and human;
Need for resource planning.

2. Natural Resources : land as a resource,
soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.

3. Forest and Wild life resources : types and
distribution ,depletion of flora and fauna; conservation and protection of forest and wild life.

4. Agriculture : types of farming, major crops,
cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; Contribution of Agriculture to national economy – employment and output.

5. Water resources : sources, distribution,
utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)

6. Mineral Resources : types of minerals,
distribution, use and economic importance of
minerals, conservation.

7. Power Resources : types of power
resources : conventional and non-conventional,
distribution and utilization, and conservation.

8. Manufacturing Industries : Types, spatial
distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced)

9. Transport, communication and trade

10. Map Work (4 marks)

Understand the value of resources and the need for their judicious utilisation and conservation;

Identify various types of farming and discuss the
various farming methods; Describe the spatial
distribution of major crops as well as understand the relationship between rainfall regimes and cropping pattern;

Explain various government policies for institutional as well as technological reforms since independence;

Understand the importance of forest and wild life in our environment as well as develop concept towards depletion of resources.

Understand the importance of agriculture in national economy;

Understand the importance of water as a resource
as well as develop awareness towards its judicious
use and conservation;

Discuss various types of minerals as well as their
uneven nature of distribution and explain the need
for their judicious utilisation;

Discuss various types of conventional and nonconventional resources and their utilization

Discuss the importance of industries in the national economy as well as understand the regional disparities which resulted due to concentration of industries in some areas;

Discuss the need for a planned industrial development and debate over the role of government towards sustainable development;

To explain the importance of transport and
communication in the ever shrinking world;
To understand the role of trade in the economic
development of a country,

Project / Activity
Learners may collect photographs of typical rural houses, and clothing of people from different regions of India and examine whether they reflect any relationship with climatic conditions and relief of the area.
Learners may write a brief report on various irrigation practices in the village and the change in cropping pattern in the last decade.
Posters
Pollution of water in the locality.
Depletion of forests and the greenhouse effect.
Note : Any similar activities may be taken up.

Unit 3 : Democratic Politics II 45 Periods

Themes Objectives
1. Power sharing mechanisms in democracy
Why and how is power shared in democracies?
How has federal division of power in India
helped national unity? To what extent has
decentralisation achieved this objective? How
does democracy accommodate different social
groups?

2. Working of Democracy
Are divisions inherent to the working of
democracy? What has been the effect of caste
on politics and of politics on caste? How has
the gender division shaped politics? How do
communal divisions affect democracy?

3. Competition and contestations in
democracy
How do struggles shape democracy in favour
of ordinary people? What role do political
parties play in competition and contestation?
Which are the major national and regional parties in India? Why have social movements come to occupy large role in politics?

4. Outcomes of democracy
Can or should democracy be judged by its
outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably
expect of democracies? Does democracy in
India meet these expectations? Has democracy
led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?

5. Challenges to democracy
Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are
the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened?
What role can an ordinary citizen play in
deepening democracy?

Analyse the relationship between social cleavages and political competition with reference to Indian situation.

Understand and analyse the challenges posed by communalism to Indian democracy.

Understand the enabling and disabling effects of caste and ethnicity in politics.

Develop a gender perspective on politics.
Introduce students to the centrality of power
sharing in a democracy.

Understand the working of spatial and social
power sharing mechanisms.
Analyse federal provisions and institutions.
Understand the new Panchayati Raj institutions in rural and urban areas.

Understand the vital role of struggle in the
expansion of democracy.

Analyse party systems in democracies.
Introduction to major political parties in the
country.

Analyse the role of social movements and nonparty political formations
Introduction to the difficult question of evaluating the functioning of democracies
Develop the skills of evaluating Indian democracy on some key dimensions : development, security and dignity for the people.
Understand the causes for continuation of
democracy in India.
Distinguish between sources of strength and
weaknesses of Indian democracy
Reflect on the different kinds of measures
possible to deepen democracy
Promote an active and participatory citizenship.

Unit 4 : Understanding Economic Development-II 45 Periods

Themes Objectives
1. The Story of Development : The
traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI – critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development;

Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.
The approach to this theme : Use case study of three states (Kerala, Punjab and Bihar) or take a few countries (India, China, Sri Lanka and one developed country)

2. The Role of Service Sector in Indian
Economy :
What is service sector (through examples) : Importance of Service Sector in generating employment and income to the nation (with the help of a few case studies); Growth of Service Sector in India; India as a major service provider to the world;
The need for public investment ; The role of important infrastructure, education and health

3. Money and Financial System : Role of
money in an economy : Historical origin; Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit – General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords,
self help groups, chit funds and private finance
companies.

4. Globalisation : What is Globalisation
(through some simple examples); How India is being globalised and why ; Development Strategy prior to 1991. State Control of Industries : Textile goods as an example for elaboration; Economic Reforms 1991; Strategies adoped in Reform measures (easing of capital flows; migration, investment flows);
Different perspectives on globalisation and its impact on different sectors; Political Impact of globalisation.

5. Consumer Awareness : How consumer is
exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market;
role of government in consumer protection

Familiarisation of some macroeconomic
concepts.

Sensitizing the child about the rationale for overall human development in our country, which include the rise of income, improvements in health and education rather than income.

It is necessary to raise question in minds of the
children whether the increase in income alone is
sufficient for a nation.

How and why people should be healthy and
provided with education.

Familiarize the concept of money as an economic concept;

Create awareness of the role of financial
institutions from the point of view of day-to-day
life.

To make aware of a major employment
generating sector.

Sensitise the learner of how and why governments invest in such an important sector.

Provide children with some idea about how a
particular economic phenomenon is influencing
their surroundings and day-to-day life.

Making the child aware of his or her rights and
duties as a consumer;

Familiarizing the legal measures available to
protect from being exploited in markets.

Suggested Activities
Theme 2 : Visit to banks and money lenders / pawnbrokers and discuss various activities that you have observed in banks in the classroom; Participate in the meetings of self help groups, which engaged in micro credit schemes in the locality of learners and observe issues discussed.
Theme 4 : Provide many examples of service sector activities. Use numerical examples, charts and photographs.
Theme 5 : Collect logos of standards available for various goods and services. Visit a consumer court nearby and discuss in the class the proceedings; Collect stories of consumer exploitation and grievances from news papers and consumer courts.

Unit 5 : Disaster Management 10 Periods

Tsunami
Safer Construction Practices.
Survival Skills.
Alternate Communication systems during disasters.
Sharing Responsibility

Prescribed Textbooks :
1. India and the Contemporary World-II (History) – Published by NCERT
2. Contemporary India II (Geography) – Published by NCERT
3. Democratic Politics II (Political Science) – Published by NCERT
4. Understanding Economic Development II – Published by NCERT
5. Together Towards a Safer India – Part III, a textbook an Disaster Management – Published by CBSE.




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